Tag Archives: New Radio (NR)

Here’s the Difference Between Real 5G & Fake 5G

27 May
5G is undoubtedly the future of mobile networks, and there’s a good chance your next phone will have it. But just like with 4G, as carriers race to get the best 5G coverage, the ones running behind are abusing marketing terms to make themselves seem further ahead than they actually are.

The Technical Definition of 5G

5G is the newest standard for cellular networks. It is the fifth generation of this standard, succeeding 4G. As with the prior upgrade, it comes with faster speeds and higher network capacities.

With the new standard comes a new radio access technology known as New Radio (NR). This is what delivers higher speeds and lower latency. In fact, the name “5G NR” is the direct successor to “4G LTE,” so it’s safe to think of 5G NR as “Real 5G.”

NR is then subdivided into Frequency Range 1 (FR1) and Frequency Range 2 (FR2).

In practice, FR1 contains frequencies between 600 MHz and 6 GHz, though it can technically range from 410 MHz to 7.125 GHz. Within this range, there are two subcategories that are colloquially referred to as “low band” (600–700 MHz) and “mid band” (2.5–3.7 GHz).

At 24–52 GHz, FR2 overlaps with the mmWave range, which is another name for any frequency between 30 and 100 GHz. FR2 frequencies between 25 and 39 GHz are called “high band.”

This is real 5G.Image by Dallas Thomas/Gadget Hacks

5G in the Real World

For smartphone users, those frequency ranges have two implications: signal strength and speed. Sadly, there’s an inverse correlation between these two factors.

The higher the frequency, the more bandwidth the signal is capable of, but the lesser the broadcast radius. mmWave signals can only travel roughly 1,500 feet, whereas FR1 bands can travel several miles. Conversely, low-band 5G tops out in the 200 Mbps range for speed, while high-band can reach up to 3 Gbps.

To help with its limited range, FR2 5G uses small cells, miniature towers that can be posted on top of buildings and other structures to provide mmWave coverage. But with poor building penetration and such a small radius, the US will never be blanketed with high band 5G the way it currently is with LTE.

The darker red areas in the map on the right represent Verizon’s mmWave coverage. High band 5G will never be ubiquitous. Image via Verizon

As a result, most systems are a mix of low bands and mmWave bands. But every carrier is implementing things a bit differently, so check out the guide below if you’d like to see more specifics.

So now that you know about 5G, here are some things to look out for.

Types of ‘Fake’ 5G to Watch Out For

There are two tricks to watch out for when purchasing your first 5G phone. The first one is a blatant attempt at deceiving customers by AT&T.

T-Mobile and Verizon both recently rolled out an update to their 4G networks to enable a set of technologies known as LTE Advanced. When AT&T finally deployed their own LTE Advanced network, they didn’t want to look like they were behind, so they decided to call it 5G Evolution (5G E).

During a recent lawsuit over the misleading term, AT&T never disputed the plaintiff’s assertion that their 5G E network was not 5G. Even real-world testing conducted by Open Signal shows 5G E speeds are no faster than the competition’s 4G networks.

So make no mistake, 5G E is not 5G. In no way, shape, or form. It’s 4G with special sauce, and AT&T is a bald-faced liar.

Image by Austin Evans/YouTube

For example, the Galaxy S20 Ultra shows “5G” when connected to Band B2 despite only supporting 5G on bands n71, n260, and n261. Network scanning apps confirm this by showing the technology used is still LTE.

Image by Jon Knight/Gadget Hacks

So if you’re looking for real 5G, make sure it’s 5G NR. Mid-band frequencies (2.5–3.6 GHz) would be preferable for their balance of speed and coverage, but high bands (25+ GHz) would be great if you can get a signal. And don’t be fooled by a 5G or 5G E icon in the status bar of a phone you’re trying at the carrier store. Grab an app like Signal Spy to make sure it’s actually 5G.

Source: https://smartphones.gadgethacks.com/how-to/heres-difference-between-real-5g-fake-5g-0308792/ 27 05 20

Making Connections with IoT Solutions

8 Nov

Internet of Things technology is creating a safer and smarter world by allowing artificial intelligence to be used with electronic devices connected to the internet.

The driving force behind today’s smarter cars, homes, factories, and cities is the myriad of Internet of Things (IoT) devices now in place. They can collect data on almost any physical or environmental parameter, such as pressure, temperature, light intensity, and humidity, and transfer large amounts of data to the internet by means of unlicensed wireless communications bands.

Wireless cellular communications may not always be available for interconnection of IoT sensors to the internet and, for that reason, IoT systems function as “networks within a network.” A typical IoT network consists of its remotely located sensors, such as real-time video cameras and smart security sensors that detect motion when an intruder enters a vacated home, and an intelligent gateway that’s wirelessly connected to the sensors.

What Type of Network?

In establishing an interconnected network of IoT devices, the types of things and applications will determine the key parameters of the IoT network, such as whether short- or long-range coverage to the gateway is needed, whether a narrowband or wideband channel is needed for smaller or larger amounts of data, and the power consumption of the IoT network and whether sensors have permanent power available or must run on battery power. IoT devices perform wireless communications to a gateway via license-free industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) frequency bands, including at 433, 868, and 915 MHz, and 2.4 GHz.

Different ISM-band wireless standards are used to link IoT devices to an IoT gateway, including Bluetooth (based on the IEEE 802.15.1 standard), Zigbee (IEEE 802.15.4), and Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11). All three operate at 2.4 GHz. Wi-Fi, which is used for many wireless local area networks (WLANs), also works at 5 GHz.

For many IoT applications, low-power operation is an important consideration. To that end, LoRaWAN—a low-power wireless wide-area-network (WAN) LoRa technology developed by Semtech—has been adopted for many IoT devices and gateways to save power. Battery-powered nodes or sensors uplink or transmit data to a gateway or server and downlink or receive instructions from a gateway only at certain times to conserve power, in contrast to more power-hungry sensors that may remain in constant receive mode with a gateway.

Array of Applications

Using LANs that can exchange data between users and things creates almost unlimited opportunities for applying artificial-intelligence (AI) and machine-learning techniques to electronic systems and devices in many different markets. The leading applications for IoT devices and low-power networks are those close to home or right in the home as part of a smart home or building. Such applications allow a building owner to add IoT sensors for security, temperature control, turn lights on and off depending on time of day or occupancy, and even perform remote smart power monitoring to conserve energy by minimizing power use in parts of the home where it’s not needed.

In this type of application, all IoT sensors are wirelessly connected to a gateway in the manner of a WLAN. The gateway is then connected by a service provider to a major communications network by a fiber-optic landline connection or via wireless connection to a 3G, 4G, or 5G cellular wireless communications network. Provided that landline or mobile communications access is available, a user can monitor and modify IoT sensor settings within the smart home at any time.

The initial investment in an IoT gateway and sensor devices is quickly recouped by the energy savings in the smart home. In addition, the IoT setup can be used for other applications within the building. For instance, it could achieve 24-hour home security, not to mention the peace of mind that comes with having full-time electronic security. Or it can offer the ability to remotely and automatically keep track of required maintenance of electronic equipment, such as washers, dryers, and heating equipment, at any time with a mobile communications device such as a smartphone.

Many of these applications help forest rangers in remote national parks in Africa and South America to thwart attempts by poachers to trap animals within the parks. Because of the remoteness of the parks, there’s typically no access to a global 3G or 4G cellular wireless network; the IoT system must function as a relatively long-range secure wireless communications network. Sensors, such as motion detectors, are distributed throughout the park and its perimeter and interconnected to a network of slave and master gateways to create coverage over a wide area, allowing rangers to monitor for poachers as well as check on the whereabouts of their valued “residents.”

IoT technology is quickly being found to be immensely useful in many different industries, too. For connected cars, it simplifies communications between drivers as well as between drivers and machines. In smart factories, IoT helps track and maintain inventory and improve the efficiency of logistics and supply-chain management. It also enables machine-to-machine (M2M) interconnections—AI and machine learning between machines can help optimize the performance of robotic assembly and manufacturing equipment while monitoring power consumption and increasing power efficiency. In “smart cities,” IoT sensors and networks are providing numerous functions for improved quality of life, including automated vehicular traffic/pedestrian monitoring at traffic intersections.

A Boon to the Medical Field

However, perhaps no industry is experiencing greater benefits from the use of IoT technology than in medical and healthcare applications. AT&T Business, one of the leaders in applying IoT devices and networks throughout different industries, has already connected millions of “smart cars” to the internet by means of its IoT devices and 4G LTE networks. SAS is another leader in the use of IoT technology for medical and healthcare applications, as well as in the use of IoT in many other industries, including smart factories and connected cars.

AT&T Business predicts that 80 billion devices will be connected to the internet in the U.S. via IoT technology by 2025. Other prognosticators have stated that trillions of devices in China alone will be connected to the internet by 2025, creating a need for the increased bandwidth and data speeds possible with 5G cellular wireless networks.

Increased life expectancies are creating a growing number of older retired persons and an associated increasing demand for in-home medical monitoring. Unfortunately, as the number of older potential patients grows, available doctors and healthcare providers are more thinly spread to provide service or even basic checkups to those patients. The application of IoT technology can help by delivering in-home monitoring with IoT-enabled medical devices, such as blood-pressure and heart-rate monitors that a doctor or healthcare professional can access remotely over a 3G, 4G, or 5G cellular network.

AT&T Business has earned a leadership role in its applications for IoT in the home, for smart factories with real-time video monitoring for security, in smart cities, and in connected cars. However, perhaps the most meaningful are medical and healthcare applications in homes, hospitals, and healthcare facilities (Fig. 1).

IOTAPSFIG1.jpg

1. The use of IoT technology may have the greatest benefits in hospitals and healthcare facilities. (Courtesy of AT&T Business)

For example, AT&T Business uses its Astute CTR-01 hub and multiple IoT nodes to provide in-home medical monitoring and connection of medical devices with connection to a 4G LTE network for secure outside access by means of a cellular smartphone. The hub/gateway is compatible with standard wireless-network technologies such as Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) and Wi-Fi, easing the interconnection of commercial IoT-enabled medical devices such as wearable monitoring devices. The application-programmable-interface (API) software developed for the IoT devices and hub is also compatible with most legacy medical applications, thus simplifying the creation of an in-home medical monitoring system.

IoT technology also helps improve the security and efficiency of medical professionals in hospitals and healthcare facilities, starting with automated patient check-in practices rather than extended paper-based check-in procedures. Furthermore, the technology can be applied in the wireless connection and monitoring of many medical monitors throughout a hospital, while maintaining the cybersecurity of the APIs that drive the IoT gateways connecting the many IoT medical nodes throughout a facility, including heat-rate monitors (Fig. 2).

IOTAPSFIG2.jpg

2. IoT technology will help serve the medical needs of a growing, aging population of retired persons with a shrinking number of medical professionals. (Courtesy of AT&T Business)

Such secure IoT networks also provide instant access for medical professionals to the data from relatively large and sophisticated medical analysis systems. These include computer-tomography (CT) and magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) systems (Fig. 3).

IOTAPSFIG3.jpg

3. AT&T Business’s IoMT devices and networks can provide remote access to brain scans performed by CT imaging equipment. (Courtesy of AT&T Business)

AT&T Business’s extensive use of IoT technology for medical applications has prompted the firm’s description of its medical electronic products and services as the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT), which includes its unique Aira service. By using smartphones and smart eyeglasses, the service is aimed at places of business seeking to become more user-friendly for low-vision customers. Businesses subscribing to the Aira service are outfitted with IoT sensors and gateways that provide customers with real-time, enhanced views of the business place. As this one application may indicate, the opportunities for IoT applications are endless and the promises are staggering.

Source: https://www.mwrf.com/systems/making-connections-iot-solutions
08 11 19

Today’s 4G LTE puts you on the pathway to tomorrow’s 5G

20 Oct

Phrases like 3G, 4G, and 5G draw definitive traces within the sand between one era and the following. In truth, the transition is way more sluggish. And since what we name 5G accommodates many functions, it’s turning into clearer that the era will impact our lives in numerous tactics, ramping up in magnitude through the years.

In the long run, 5G’s gigabit-class throughput, ultra-low latency, ultra-high reliability, and data-centric infrastructure will make it imaginable to use synthetic intelligence at an unparalleled scale. It’ll enhance the versatility of cloud computing, whilst developing new alternatives on the edge. And it’ll pave the way in which for a bigger collection of broadband IoT units, which is able to account for just about 35% of mobile IoT connections through 2024. Simply within the media business by myself, new products and services and programs enabled through 5G are anticipated to generate a cumulative $765 billion bucks between now and 2028.

5-year outlook

Whilst the adoption of 5G gained’t be so simple as flipping a transfer, we do have some sense of the transition’s tempo. If the merger between T-Cell and Dash is going via, 97% of the U.S. inhabitants is promised some type of 5G carrier from the New T-Cell inside 3 years of that deal final, together with 85% of people in rural spaces. The union of T-Cell and Dash additionally units forth a plan to determine Dish Networks as a fourth primary wi-fi provider along AT&T and Verizon, serving a minimum of 70% of the U.S. inhabitants with 5G through June 2023.

Between from time to time, 5G entry will proceed rolling out within the densest spaces and municipalities pleasant to the era’s infrastructure necessities, in step with a record printed through cloud-delivered wi-fi edge answer supplier Cradlepoint. Ericsson’s June 2019 Mobility Record forecasts 10 million 5G subscriptions international through the top of 2019. A quicker uptake in comparison to LTE would possibly lead to as many as 1.nine billion 5G subscriptions for enhanced cellular broadband through the top of 2024.

So does that imply you will have to dangle off on upgrading community infrastructure till 5G protection is in style? Now not essentially. In the similar record, Ericsson tasks the ongoing enlargement of LTE, culminating in a height of five.three billion subscriptions in 2022. There’s no doubt that LTE and 5G networks will perform in live performance for years yet to come.

Very best of all, there’s a pathway to 5G that guarantees a lot of the era’s price on current 4G LTE networks. As you run up towards programs begging for gigabit-class records charges and single-digit-millisecond latencies, a handful of knowledgeable upgrades could also be all you want to bridge the distance between what’s to be had now and whole 5G protection throughout your WAN.

ericsson june 2019 mobility report

Above: A 5G subscription is counted as such when related to a tool that helps New Radio (NR), as laid out in 3GPP Unlock 15, and is hooked up to a 5G-enabled community

How is 5G taking place lately?

Prior to we discover what you’ll be able to do now, let’s communicate a bit extra about how the era is rolling out lately. 5G is getting used to explain many various functions, frequency spectrums, or even use circumstances. They gained’t all be imaginable, and even fascinating, throughout 5G-capable units or on 5G networks. That is through design, regardless that.

Present 5G deployments are being pushed through mounted wi-fi entry and enhanced cellular broadband (eMBB), construction upon 4G LTE with extra to be had spectrum and wider bands to push considerably upper bandwidth. However every provider’s technique is moderately other.

Verizon, for instance, is specializing in the 28 GHz and 39 GHz frequencies, often known as millimeter wave, to reach large throughput and coffee latency. Alternatively, the restricted vary of the ones alerts may also be problematic, even within the dense city spaces the place Verizon already gives 5G carrier.

“You want to have 4 antennas, every on a special airplane, to give you the optimum line of sight connectivity to a 5G millimeter wave tower,” defined Todd Krautkremer, CMO at Cradlepoint. “Then you want some type of set up help, in all probability an software, that is helping consumers optimally place that instrument. Additionally it is most probably that you want an outside modem that mounts on a pole or aspect of a construction to verify you’ll be able to get connectivity since millimeter-wave alerts steadily combat to penetrate low-emissivity-glass, for instance.

Dash is the usage of extra 2.five GHz spectrum with huge MIMO antenna programs in the past deployed to improve its LTE carrier. That’s going to make it more uncomplicated for the corporate to succeed in extra consumers, albeit at decrease records charges. In reality, Verizon suggests a reliance on mid-band spectrum goes to make a large number of 5G approximate “excellent 4G carrier.”

Very similar to Verizon, T-Cell is approved for millimeter wave spectrum within the 28 GHz and 39 GHz bands. It’s additionally running to enlarge protection with 600 MHz low-band 5G. A merger with Dash would give each corporations entry to sources around the vary of frequencies utilized by 5G programs.

5G’s different use circumstances will take time to bake

Past the improved cellular broadband and stuck wi-fi entry stoning up in city markets, the advantages of 5G can even make it imaginable to ensure ultra-reliable low-latency communications (URLLC) for robotics, protection programs, self sustaining cars, and healthcare.

cradlepoint 5g use cases

Above: 5G use circumstances

This 2nd carrier class explained through the Global Telecommunication Union gifts a novel set of demanding situations since low latency and excessive reliability are steadily at odds with every different. However URLLC products and services are designed to take precedence a few of the different 5G use circumstances. They loosen up the emphasis on uncooked throughput with shorter messages, extra clever scheduling, and grant-free uplink entry, getting rid of latency that in the past went into combating interference from units transmitting on the identical time.

A 3rd use case, huge machine-type communique (mMTC), guarantees connectivity to dense swathes of sensors that aren’t essentially bandwidth-sensitive. They do, alternatively, require low continual intake, low charge, and dependable operation in a sea of heterogenous units working at the identical community.

5G’s eMBB carrier class appears so much like an evolution of 4G, paving the way in which for upper throughput and extra environment friendly use of to be had spectrum. The URLLC and mMTC categories are all in regards to the Web of Issues (IoT), the place machines, sensors, cameras, drones, and surgical gear interoperate in new and thrilling tactics. For a few of these units, the 99.99 reliability of 4G LTE programs]  is inadequate. Others stand to have the benefit of 5G’s non-orthogonal more than one entry (NOMA) era, supporting extra units in a given space than current low-power extensive space networks.

The eMBB-oriented model of 5G to be had lately, known as the non-standalone structure, permits carriers to make use of current community belongings to introduce 5G spectrums and spice up capability. It’s no longer the model that’ll sooner or later continual our sensible factories and attached automobiles, nevertheless it does lend a hand bridge lately’s truth and the following day’s alternatives, that are going to require a whole lot of infrastructure paintings.

Standalone 5G, with its cloud-native 5G Core and community reducing capability, is foundational to enabling the era’s 3 use circumstances. This subsequent section of 5G is an eventuality—without a doubt about that. However it’s nonetheless in a trying out section and gained’t even start rolling out till 2020. Getting ready now will make the transition more uncomplicated and assist you to get extra ROI out of your current WAN.

Getting the advantages of 5G in an LTE global

Figuring out the total 5G revel in isn’t going to contain flipping a transfer that makes all 3 use circumstances viable concurrently. In reality, a large number of the options integral to 5G are already elements of the most recent LTE requirements. It can be the case that appearing an improve lately will lend a hand with a transfer to 5G the following day.

“…gigabit-class LTE products and services in reality constitute, I might say, nearly 5G model zero.five, as a result of they begin to incorporate most of the identical foundational applied sciences as 5G,” mentioned Cradlepoint’s Krautkremer. “For instance, functions like 256-QAM—a modulation era, which is, ‘how the provider can stuff extra bits down a unmarried piece of spectrum.’ And four×four MIMO, which is, as we all know from the Wi-Fi global, ‘how can I am getting extra bits within the air from the brink instrument to the tower.’ Then now we have provider aggregation or CA, which takes us again to the inverse multiplexing days of, ‘how do I take a number of items of spectrum and mix them in combination to behave like one greater piece of spectrum?’ By way of leveraging those applied sciences inside gigabit LTE, carriers at the moment are ready to ship 150, 200, even 400 megabits in line with 2nd of mounted wi-fi and cellular connectivity on LTE networks.”

5g integration with 4g emf explained

Above: When a 5G connection is established, the Person Apparatus (or instrument) will hook up with each the 4G community to give you the keep watch over signaling and to the 5G community to lend a hand give you the speedy records connection through including to the prevailing 4G capability.

It’s going to take a little time for carriers to reach significant densification of millimeter wave radios, to get their backhaul able for 10 gigabits of wi-fi visitors, to refarm 3G and 4G spectrum, and to roll out multi-access edge computing for decrease latency. Companies looking forward to all that want extra connectivity, to strengthen video, backup, or extra endpoints. Fairly than looking forward to 5G to hide their complete footprint, present 4G answers are offering an intermediate step.

Krautkremer persisted, “The wonderful thing about it’s, now that 4G is being upgraded to have extra 5G-like efficiency functions with gigabit LTE, and 5G is beginning to deploy, corporations like Cradlepoint are telling consumers, ‘glance, we’ll put you at the pathway to 5G so you’ll be able to get 80% of the worth of 5G lately on a 4G gigabit LTE community for current programs that want quicker mounted wi-fi and cellular speeds.’ After which, as 5G turns into to be had to your community footprint and you need to benefit from it, we’re creating and participating on answers—whether or not it’s millimeter wave, mid-wave, or low-band—that may maintain your funding to your current router infrastructure and offers you entry to 5G when and the place you want it.”

The preservation Krautkremer is speaking about comes from community purposes virtualization (NFV) and a software-defined structure. Those ideas are integral to the deployment and control of 5G networks. They supplement every different, enabling variable 4G LTE or 5G workloads the usage of commonplace . That implies taking an off-the-shelf Xeon-based server and nearly spinning-up community products and services that will have in the past required single-purpose units and plenty of months of labor to deploy.

Making an investment in sensible foundations

In step with a white paper printed through A10 Networks, probably the most smartest investments you’ll be able to make into an current 4G community contain utility applied sciences that still lay the root for a 5G improve. Advanced community control gear are indexed because the single-most logical and cost-effective position to begin. A control and orchestration (MANO) framework, for instance,  offers you the versatility to deploy products and services as they transition from bodily home equipment to digital machines. Compute, garage, and networking sources turn into a lot more uncomplicated to transport and arrange.

The honour steadily made between 4G and 5G means that there’s an drawing close Giant Bang tournament poised to unfold next-gen protection all over the place. In truth, the transition goes to occur slowly, group through group, town through town. Within the interim, LTE and 5G will coexist. A few of lately’s most well liked modem-RF programs make that a lot transparent. In lately’s non-standalone model of 5G, which makes use of the keep watch over airplane of current LTE networks, they have got a connection to the 4G and 5G networks on the identical time, permitting you to dip out and in of 5G protection with out interrupting carrier.

“It in reality makes the purpose that 4G and 5G infrastructures are going to be round for a very long time, concluded Cradlepoint’s Krautkremer. “And that’s why carriers are upgrading their 4G infrastructure, to scale back the differential of functions between 4G and 5G in order that they may be able to be extra harmonious in combination than we’ve observed in any earlier evolution of wi-fi era.”

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