Tag Archives: LTE Advanced

Carrier Aggregation and the Road to Cognitive Radio and Superwide Spectrum

16 Jan

Carrier Aggregation

Often, the least hyped technologies are the most effective, get the widest adoption, and have the greatest impact. Carrier aggregation is one such technology that I don’t think it received its fair share of attention. LTE did bring a number of new features that were not available in 3G, such as MIMO. But MIMO was already deployed in other technologies including both Wi-Fi and WiMAX. Carrier aggregation on the other hand developed by the requirement to achieve higher data rates in LTE network. True channel bonding is a feature of Wi-Fi, but it applies to adjacent channels. Carrier aggregation on the other hand combines distinct channels in different bands. From that perspective, I am not aware of any wireless technology that has implemented carrier aggregation.

Carrier Aggregation - LTE-Advanced

Carrier Aggregation – LTE-Advanced: Up to 5 20 MHz Carriers can be combined for 100 MHz bandwidth.

If necessity is the mother of invention, then carrier aggregation has a few mothers! Data rate requirement is one, but another very important aspect is spectrum fragmentation. To date, there are 44 bands defined for LTE operation between 400 and 3800 MHz. Each band supports anywhere from 2 to 6 different channelizations for a total of 159 different profiles! Trunking theory stipulates higher efficiency and greater capacity in wider channels than narrow channels. In fact, a 20 MHz LTE channel carries 103% more capacity on average than 10 MHz channel – that’s a 3% gain in capacity. Carrier aggregation is therefore a mean to achieving greater capacity with fragmented spectrum.

LTE Spectrum Fragmentation

Carrier aggregation is an important development because it is the first step along the long road to realize cognitive radio implementation in wireless networks. Cognitive radio involves the capability of spectrum sensing to identify suitable bands for operations (which is a very challenging task). The radio would in effect ‘stitch’ different bands together to meet the application performance requirements. The importance of this cannot be overstated. Spectrum utilization is highly variable and can include long idle periods. This encouraged the concept of spectrum sharing techniques in which cognitive radio will play a part. Carrier aggregation is therefore a first step on that road.

Implementation of carrier aggregation is the result of integrating and optimizing multiple developments. On the handset side, we now have available on the market wideband RFICs and frontend chipsets with highly integrated power amplifiers that span the entire sub 6 GHz spectrum: example is the Qualcomm RF360 chipset. We also have developments in antenna design and tuning and matching techniques that allow support for multiple bands. Although implementation on the base station side can be easier because some parameters such as space and cost can be more relaxed than the handset side, numerous challenges related to integrating multiple high-power carriers had to be resolved. Finally, the LTE functions to support carrier aggregation had to be put in place such as cross-scheduling.

There have been a number of trials of carrier aggregation to date. Commercially, it is operational on all three carrier networks in Korea. It is the first feature of LTE-Advanced (Release 10) to be deployed. Users can therefore expect better capacity which translates also into lower delay. Operators can use carrier aggregation to support a greater number of users in a single cell. Furthermore, small cells and hetnets can make use of carrier aggregation to coordinate operation and avoid interference. This can be particularly advantageous when coupled with shared spectrum access in bands such as 3.5 GHz (US) and 2.3 GHz (Europe).

LTE Advanced Carrier Aggregation Downlink Throughput

Probability Distribution Function of LTE Advanced Carrier Aggregation Downlink Throughput. (Source: Signals Research Group)

Country Operator Max Downlink Speed (Mbps)
Australia Telstra (2×20 MHz, 1800/2600 MHz, Ericsson) 300
Australia Optus (TD-LTE, 2×20 MHz, 2300 MHz, Huawei)(TD-LTE, 4×20 MHz, 2300 MHz, Huawei) 160520
Austria A1 Telekom Austria (NSN) 580
France SFR (2×10 MHz, 800/2600 MHz, Ericsson) 174
China China Mobile (TD-LTE, 2×20 MHz, ZTE) 233
Japan NTT DOCOMO 300
Philippines Smart Communications (Huawei) 211
Portugal Optimus (Huawei) 300
Russia Yota (Huawei) 300
South Africa Telkom Mobile (TD-LTE, 2×20 MHz, 2300 MHz, Huawei) 200
South Korea SK Telecom (2×10 MHz 800/1800 MHz, Samsung, Ericsson, NSN) 150*
South Korea LG U+ (2×10 MHz, 800/2100 MHz, Samsung, Ericsson, NSN) 150*
South Korea Korea Telecom (2×10 MHz, 900/1800 MHz, Samsung, Ericsson, NSN) 150*
Turkey Turkcell (Huawei) 150900 (Lab)
UK EE (2×20 MHz, 1800/2600 MHz) 300

Table 1. Carrier Aggregation Trials & Deployments (*)

As we evolve from 4G LTE/LTE-Advanced, carrier aggregation is set to play a major role in any future 5G technologies through cognitive radio and in what is called “super wideband spectrum.” That is what makes carrier aggregation such an important development in wireless technologies. The potential for innovation is truly great and we are still at the beginning of this journey.

Source: http://frankrayal.com/2014/01/14/carrier-aggregation-and-the-road-to-cognitive-radio-and-superwide-spectrum/


LTE-A in Unlicensed Band (LTE-U)

28 Nov
Qualcomm has recently floated the idea of deploying LTE in unlicensed bands, particularly focusing on the 5GHz band, which is currently used mostly for WiFi. According to a document (RP-131635) submitted to the upcoming 3GPP plenary meeting, the proposal is to deploy LTE as Supplemental Downlink (SDL) in 5725-5850 MHz in USA, with the PCell (Primary Cell) always operating on a carrier in a licensed band. Verizon has also submitted a Work Item Proposal (RP-131680) to to introduce the new band for SDL usage. There’s also a Study Item proposal from Ericsson (RP-131788) is the rapporteur to study the modifications necessary to the LTE radio.

These documents can be downloaded from the 3GPP FTP site.

In addition, there’s a presentation from Qualcomm on the same topic.

The Rise of SON in LTE Deployments

8 Oct

4G Americas Report Details SON Enhancements in 3GPP Release 11


4G Americas, a wireless industry trade association representing the 3GPP family of technologies, including LTE, today announced that it has published a white paper titled Self-Optimizing Networks in 3GPP Release 11: The Benefits of SON in LTE, which outlines the enhancements of Self Organizing Network (SON) features in 3GPP Release 11 (Rel-11) and addresses the multi-vendor aspects of SON and its deployment challenges and opportunities. The SON standards provide network intelligence, automation and network management features in order to automate the configuration and optimization of wireless networks to adapt to varying radio channel conditions. With these features, SON increases efficiencies and improves network capacity, quality, performance and flexibility.

“SON has been available within the standards for quite some time, yet with the new techniques and capabilities available from vendors, it has an opportunity to be even more important to wireless carriers’ overall network strategy in the years ahead,” remarked Kamakshi Sridhar of Alcatel-Lucent and co-project leader of the 4G Americas technical group that authored the white paper.

LTE is being rapidly deployed throughout the world, with 209 commercial networks today and 250 commercial LTE networks anticipated by the end of the year. The density of wireless networks is increasing rapidly to cope with the exponential growth of user traffic, mostly driven by smartphones, tablets, connected applications and video streaming. LTE and small cells enable Heterogeneous Network (HetNet) architecture, mixing macro cells and small cells for extended coverage and capacity. However, this can increase the complexity of network operation activities in an industry working to improve and streamline efficiencies. To tackle this challenge, most, if not all, major mobile operators worldwide have or are planning to deploy SON features.

Co-project leader Pantelis Monogioudis, also from Alcatel-Lucent commented, “The densification of various cell layers in carrier networks will lead to thousands of additional small cells that will need the latest SON enhancements for operators to efficiently deploy and manage the network.”

SON is a promising feature defined by 3GPP to help operators automate several recurring tasks required for activities such as cell deployment and performance optimization for LTE, as well as a solution to manage network complexity while reducing operational expenses (OPEX).

SON focuses on three main areas:

  • Self-Configuration functions: the ability for the network to reconfigure itself automatically when nodes are added, deleted or modified, such as Automatic Neighbor Relation (ANR)
  • Self-Optimizing functions: a recurring and automated process for the dynamic tuning of network parameters for optimal performance in changing conditions, such as handling traffic density migration due to periodicity
  • Self-Healing functions: automatic compensation to restore service where it has been degraded, for example, in the case of base station outage, by dynamic reconfiguration to adjacent healthy cells

A key goal of 3GPP standardization has been the ability to support SON features in multi-vendor network environments. Therefore, a significant part of the SON standardization has been devoted to defining the appropriate interfaces to allow the exchange of common information which can then be used by each SON algorithm. The SON specifications have been built over the existing 3GPP network management architecture defined over Releases 8, 9, 10 and 11. These management interfaces are being defined in a generic manner to leave room for innovation on different vendor implementations. In addition to specifying the interfaces, 3GPP has defined a set of LTE SON use cases and associated SON functions. The standardized SON features effectively track the expected LTE network evolution stages as a function of time, following expected commercial network maturity. In Release 8, SON functionality focused on procedures associated with initial equipment installation and integration to support the commercial deployment of the first LTE networks, and in each subsequent Release, the standards are evolved to benefit the more complex network architectures.

The 4G Americas’ white paper published in 2011, Self-Optimizing Networks: The Benefits of SON in LTE, addressed the rationale for SON and the description of SON features in 3GPP Releases 8, 9 and 10. Building upon that information, the newly updated paper based on Rel-11 standards focuses on SON use cases, which play an important role in the operation of multi-vendor Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets) comprised of macro and metro cells and various architecture options and tradeoffs for implementation.

Key SON enhancements described in this report are:

  • Automatic Neighbor Relations
  • Load Balancing Optimization
  • Handover Optimization
  • Coverage and Capacity Optimization
  • Energy Savings
  • Coordination between various SON Functions
  • Minimization of Drive Tests

“SON is an important enhancement that affords operators the benefit of increasing their overall network performance,” stated Chris Pearson, President of 4G Americas. “With a scarcity of spectrum in the Americas, and in many countries worldwide, 3GPP continues to evolve the standards for network technology to serve customers’ ever growing appetite for mobile broadband data.”

Pearson added, “Although SON improves network performance and capacity issues, it is not a substitute for the wireless industry’s important need for more spectrum to meet the challenge of the impending capacity crunch.”

The white paper, Self-Optimizing Networks in 3GPP Release 11: The Benefits of SON in LTE, was written collaboratively by members of 4G Americas and is available for free downloadat: www.4gamericas.org.


Source: http://www.marketwired.com/press-release/the-rise-of-son-in-lte-deployments-1838517.htm


30 Aug

In de wereld van mobiel internet hoor je de laatste maanden niets anders dan ‘4G’. Alle grote providers hebben het erover, ‘rollen het uit’ en maken hun netwerken 4G-klaar. Maar wat betekent nu eigenlijk 4G? En wat houdt het in dat we straks 4G op onze smartphones hebben? Wij zochten het voor je uit.

4G – de vierde generatie

In telecommunicatie voor mobiele telefoons is 4G, ofwel: fourth generation, de opvolger van 3G, de huidige standaard voor mobiel internet. Dat betekent dat je met 4G sneller internet hebt op mobiele telefoons, laptops en andere mobiele apparaten. Gezegd wordt dat 4G een praktische snelheid heeft van zo’n 12,5 MB (megabyte) per seconde als je in de trein of auto zit en 125 MB wanneer je stilstaat of wandelt. In landen waar 4G al volledig is ingevoerd, worden snelheden bereikt die in ieder geval vijf keer sneller zijn dan 3G.

4g netwerk

Vanaf 2014 zullen mensen vaker op het internet actief zijn via een mobiel apparaat dan via hun desktop pc (bron: Wikipedia).

Waarom 4G?

Verwacht wordt dat vanaf ongeveer 2014 meer mensen gebruik zullen maken van mobiel internet dan van internet via een desktop computer. Steeds vaker wordt internet gebruikt vanaf een telefoon, tablet of laptop. De verwachte toename zal ertoe leiden dat 3G niet langer toereikend is om al deze data aan te kunnen. Om het toenemende internetverkeer aan te kunnen is 4G ontwikkeld.

4G en LTE (Advanced)

Om ervoor te zorgen dat je soepel kunt surfen op het internet en data kunt down- en uploaden heb je een ‘high performance’ overdrachtsysteem nodig. Dit systeem kan pakketjes met data als spraak, audio en video snel en goed vervoeren. Het meest gebruikte systeem is op dit moment LTE: Long Term Evolution. 4G-internet werkt alleen optimaal op de opvolger van dit systeem: LTE Advanced.

4g internet

LTE Advanced biedt de mogelijkheid om allerlei verschillende soorten data te verwerken waaronder tekst, audio en video.

4G in Nederland

Op dit moment heeft 50% van Nederland toegang tot het 4G-netwerk. Stap voor stap wordt toegewerkt naar een landelijke dekking. Het doel is om 4G in maart 2014 voor iedereen beschikbaar te laten zijn. Of je dan ook daadwerkelijk gebruik kan maken van het netwerk, ligt aan je telefoon en het abonnement dat je hebt. Bij sommige providers mag je gewoon gebruik maken van 4G, bij anderen betaal je extra.

Heb jij de juiste telefoon?

Niet alle huidige telefoons zijn geschikt voor 4G. We geven een overzicht van telefoons waarvan bekend is dat ze gebruik kunnen maken van het 4G-netwerk:

  • Samsung Galaxy S4 (Android 4.x)
  • Samsung Galaxy S III 4G (GT-i9305) (Android 4.x)
  • Samsung Galaxy Express 4G (Android 4.x)
  • Sony Xperia Z 4G (Android 4.x)
  • Sony Xperia SP 4G (Android 4.x)
  • Nokia Lumia 920 (Windows Phone 8.0)
  • Nokia Lumia 820 (Windows Phone 8.0)
  • BlackBerry Z10 (OS10)
  • BlackBerry Q10 4G (OS10)
  • HTC One 4G (Android 4.x)
  • HTC One SV 4G Android 4.x)
  • Huawei Ascend P1 LTE (Android 4.x)
  • ZTE Grand Era LTE (V9800) (Android 4.x)

Voor Apple gebruikers is er minder goed nieuws: huidige iPhone-toestellen ondersteunen LTE Advanced (nog) niet. Hier wordt echter aan gewerkt; elke dag stromen nieuwsberichten binnen met de laatste iPhone en 4G geruchten binnen. Wie weet kunnen binnenkort ook de nieuwste iPhones gebruik maken van 4G.

Source: http://4gspecialist.wordpress.com/2013/08/30/4g-netwerk/

LTE Release 12: Small Cell Enhancements – Higher Layer Aspects

16 Jul

One of the 3GPP Rel-12 Study Items focuses on Small Cell Enhancements.from the perspective of higher layers. There are 3 scenarios under consideration:

Scenario 1:  Macro and small cells on the same carrier frequency, connected via non-ideal backhaul.

Scenario 2: Macro and small cells on different carrier frequencies, connected via non-ideal backhaul.

Scenario 3: Only small cells on one or more carrier frequencies, connected via non-ideal backhaul.

The challenges posed by these scenarios are summarized in the table below.


To address these challenges, 3GPP’s RAN Working Group 2, is currently working towards a set of solutions, with the following design goals in mind:


The idea of ‘dual connectivity’ has more or less been accepted as the way forward. This term refers to operation where a given UE consumes radio resources provided by at least two different network points connected with non-ideal backhaul. Each eNB involved in dual connectivity for a UE may assume different roles and these roles do not necessarily depend on the eNB’s power class and can vary among UEs.

Within the dual-connectivity framework, there are two potential solutions being discussed:

Inter-node radio resource aggregation: This solution is aimed at improving per-user throughput by aggregating radio resources in more than one eNB for user plane data transmission.ImageRRC Diversity: This solution is targeted at improving mobility robustness by transmitting handover related RRC signalling could from/to a potential target cell. The RRC diversity scheme could also be applied for handovers from the macro to pico cells, between macro or between pico cells.


Further details of these solutions can be found in TR36.842.

Source: http://allabout4g.wordpress.com/2013/07/14/lte-release-12-small-enhancements-higher-layer-aspects/

On LTE-Advanced and Carrier Aggregation

2 Jul

LTE-AdvancedNews of LTE-Advanced is making headlines. SK Telecom aggregated two 10 MHz carriers in 800 and 1800 MHz to achieve 150 Mbps downlink throughput with a version of the Samsung Galaxy S4 handset built upon Qualcomm’s Snapdragon 800 SoC. Verizon announced that its LTE network is nearly complete and suggested carrier aggregation (CA) is the next step. AT&T on the other hand has plans to use carrier aggregation over its 700 MHz unpaired lower D and E blocks.

Carrier Aggregation

Carrier Aggregation (Source: Qualcomm)

While LTE-Advanced has many features aside than carrier aggregation, such news is significant because they indicate how carriers are moving to address the demand for capacity. Implementing carrier aggregation has in my opinion the best cost/benefit of LTE-Advanced features, provided spectrum is available, which is the case with many operators. To put the issue into perspective, consider for instance other highlight features of LTE-Advanced:

* High order MIMO: today’s LTE systems use two transmit antennas at the base station and the handsets are equipped with two receive antennas (2×2). LTE-Advanced supports higher order MIMO such as 4×4, but the gain from this implementation will be limited as capacity cannot increase beyond the minimum number of transmit or receive antennas (so 4×2 results in doubling the capacity, similar to 2×2). Increasing the base station antennas to 4 while the handset remains at 2 antennas will not result in doubling of capacity, but there will be improved service nonetheless as the link between base station and mobile becomes more robust.

* Small cells: much discussed in recent years, small cells remains encumbered by the business case, interference management such as eICIC, SON, site location & expense, backhaul and other challenges. The advantage of small cells is that they can be deployed selectively to increase capacity in certain areas.

* Relays: have not been at the forefront of features as they are considered mainly as a coverage extension tool. Also, there is aversion to using access spectrum for backhaul even on a limited basis. I expect that spectrum sharing techniques can open up low cost spectrum where relays become viable.

* Coordinated Multipoint (CoMP): CoMP requires tight synchronization of transmitters and places a burden on the backhaul network. Many issues remain to be resolved in CoMP but ultimately operating this feature would require fiber connectivity to sites, which is expensive and not all carriers might have that capability.

Considering the cost/benefit equation associated with other major LTE-Advanced features, I expect carrier aggregation to gain traction quickly particularly as many operators now posses TDD spectrum. For example, Sprint’s acquisition of Clearwire can pave the way to use some of the 2.5 GHz spectrum in CA mode to augment downlink capacity. In Europe and other areas of the world, 3GPP Band 38 (2570-2620 MHz) is available for carrier aggregation. This is further supported on the handset site by new SoCs such as the Snapdragon 800. However, we may still have to wait for a short while before CA becomes a mainstream technology as I expect it will.

Source: http://frankrayal.com/2013/07/01/on-lte-advanced-and-carrier-aggregation/

World`s First LTE-Advanced Network launched by SK-Telecom

27 Jun

SK Telecom announced that it today launched the world’s first LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) service through smartphones.  The company achieved such a milestone in only less than two years after commercializing the nation’s first LTE service in July 2011.

To commercialize LTE-A, SK Telecom successfully developed and applied the most-advanced mobile network technologies. The company already applied Carrier Aggregation (CA) and Coordinated Multi Point (CoMP), and plans to apply Enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (eICIC) in 2014.

CA, commercialized for the first time in the world by SK Telecom, supports up to 150Mpbs speed by combining two 10 MHz components carriers to form an effective bandwidth of 20 MHz spectrum bands.

With the surge of data traffic worldwide, CA will act as the key enabler for network evolution among mobile operators around the world. According to network experts, CA will be further advanced to realize up to 300Mbps speed by aggregating two 20MHz component carriers by 2015, and become capable of combining three component carriers by 2016. In addition, they expect to see the realization of uplink CA by 2016. The current CA standards allow for up to five 20 MHz carriers to be aggregated.

Since launching the nation’s first generation analogue network (1G) in 1984, SK Telecom led the popularization of mobile telecommunications service by commercializing CDMA (2G) for the first time in the world in 1996, and introduced video telephony service through the commercialization of CDMA2000 1X in 2000. In 2006, the company opened the era of mobile data communications service by commercializing the HSDPA technology over its 3G WCDMA network using a mobile phone for the first time in the world. Then, SK Telecom has launched the Korea’s first 4G LTE in 2011 and successfully commercialized the Multi Carrier (MC) technology, for the first time in the world, in July 2012.

SK Telecom announced that its existing LTE price plans will apply to the LTE-A service, meaning that customers will be able to enjoy twice faster network speeds without paying extra. The decision comes as part of its commitment to maximize customer benefits and satisfaction through innovative technologies and services.

With the commercialization of the world’s first LTE-A network, SK Telecom today released Samsung’s ‘Galaxy S4 LTE-A.’ The Samsung device, the world’s first phone optimized to work over LTE-A network, will come in two different colors, red (exclusively available at SK Telecom) and blue.

SK Telecom will embed useful services like ‘Safe Message’ and ‘Safe Data Backup’ as basic features in all its LTE-A phones. Safe Message is designed to protect users from smishing (SMS phishing) attacks by enabling them to check whether the message is sent from a trusted source; and ‘Safe Data Backup’ enables users to upload personal data stored in their smartphones to the cloud server to keep data safe from smartphone loss and accidental deletion. The company also plans to mount these features on all its to-be released LTE phones as well.

Customers can purchase Galaxy S4 LTE-A at SK Telecom’s official online store named T World Shop (www.tworldshop.co.kr), or at one of 2,850 authorized SK Telecom T World retail stores. The company has secured an initial supply of 20,000 units of Galaxy S4 LTE-A.

Furthermore, SK Telecom will vigorously expand its LTE-A phone lineup to boost the popularization of LTE-A service. It plans to provide a total of seven different LTE-A compatible smarphones in the second half of 2013.

Begins offering LTE-A in Seoul and central areas of Gyeongg-do and Chungcheong-do, and plans to expand LTE-A coverage to 84 cities nationwide

SK Telecom plans to expand its LTE-A coverage at an unmatched speed to keep offering the best call quality to customers.

To achieve early commercialization of LTE-A, the company, for the first time in the world, developed the MC technology and applied it to its LTE network in July 2012. During the process, SK Telecom designed and built MC base stations in a way that they can support an optimized evolution towards LTE-A.

In March, SK Telecom has launched aggressive plans to expand the coverage of MC base stations to 200 university areas and central areas of 84 cities nationwide. The company has built a total of 20,000 RU (Radio Units) as of June 2013. With MC in place, the company can easily evolve the network to LTE-A s through simple software upgrades.

SK Telecom’s LTE-A, launched today, covers the entire Seoul, central areas of 42 cities in Gyeonggi-do and Chungcheong-do, and 103 university areas. Furthermore, the company will gradually expand its LTE-A coverage to 84 cities across the nation.

On June 27, 2013, the company will launch a group video calling service for up to four users. The service, an upgraded version of the 3G network-based multi-party video conferencing service, will support 12 times better video quality and 2 times clearer audio quality.

SK Telecom’s ‘Btv mobile,’ an IPTV service with 550,000 paid subscribers, will begin providing full HD (1080p resolution) video streaming service, for the first time in the world, from early July. Full HD video streaming requires a speed of 2Mbps or above, which is well supported by the LTE-A network.
※Required speed for each level of image quality – SD: 1Mbps, HD: 2Mbps, Full HD: 4~8Mbps

The company will also launch ‘T Baseball Multiview,’ to enable users to watch two different games on one screen in July 2013. T Baseball is a free, real-time professional baseball game broadcast service optimized to the LTE network. Launched in August 2012, the service is currently enjoyed by 1.1 million users.

Moreover, SK Telecom plans to launch ‘T Freemium 2.0,’ a free multimedia content package that offers three times more contents – e.g. dramas, TV entertainment shows, music videos, sports game highlights, etc.- than its previous version, ‘T Freemium,’ in July 2013.

The company is also planning to launch a new HD video-based shopping service in August 2013 to make shopping more fun and convenient for customers. Users will be able to seamlessly watch 6 different home shopping channels on one screen.

Also, SK Telecom’s online/mobile music portal service MelOn yesterday opened a new service category to allow users to listen to original CD quality music by downloading Free Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC) files.

Meanwhile, SK Telecom will hold a large-scale contest named ‘LTE-A i.con’ to boost the creation and provision of diverse innovative contents and applications optimized for the LTE-A network.

At today’s LTE-A press conference held at SK T-Tower, SK Telecom’s head office, the company demonstrated the speed of its LTE-A network by comparing it with those of LTE and 3G.

It also showcased innovative LTE-A-based mobile value added services including MelOn’s FLAC files, ‘T Baseball Multiview’ and Btv mobile’s full HD video streaming service.

Moreover, Kwon Hyok-sang, Head of Network Division of SK Telecom, made live video calls from SK T-Tower to Gangnam Station and the company’s Daejeon office to show LTE-A’s ultra-fast speed.

Park In-sik, President of Network Business Operations at SK Telecom said, “SK Telecom is proud to announce the world’s first commercialization of LTE-A. By supporting twice faster speeds than LTE, LTE-A will not only enhance customers’ satisfaction in network quality, but also give birth to new mobile value added services that can bring innovative changes to our customers’ lives.”

Source: http://4g-portal.com/worlds-first-lte-advanced-network-launched-by-sk-telecom

All About 4G

2 Jun

Solution 1: RAN-assisted Network Selection and Traffic Steering


This solution relies on the RAN providing relevant information that may be used by a UE to decide:

1. If and when to connect/disconnect to/from an available WLAN

2. Steer one or more data flows from/to 3GPP RAN to/from WLAN

The UE is assumed to receive network selection and traffic steering rules and/or polices either via ANDSF or user preferences or operator provisioning. The solution can be applied in both RCC_IDLE and RRC_CONNECTED modes. More specifically, the figure below, taken from doc R2-132055, illustrates the procedure when UE is idle mode.

ImageThe steps involved in this procedure are as follows:

  • When the UE establishes RRC connection with 3GPP RAN, it transfers interworking capability info to the network
  • If the UE has indicated support for WLAN interworking and 3GPP RAN also wants to interwork with WLAN, the latter may provide assistance info to UE via dedicated signalling at the time of RRC connection release.
  • In addition, RAN may broadcast System Information which includes assistance info. If UE has valid assistance information provided through dedicated signalling previously, it ignores the related broadcast information.
  • UE selects the access network based on information provided by RAN, information obtained from WLAN and rules/policies/preferences.

Note that no traffic steering happens in this case as the UE is in IDLE mode. The procedure is similar when the UE is in CONNECTED mode, as shown below.Image

  • As in the previous case, the UE transfers its interworking capability information to RAN at the time of RRC Connection establishment.
  • While the UE is connected to RAN, it receives assistance information from RAN through dedicated signalling, if the UE supports WLAN interworking and RAN wants to interwork with WLAN.
  • UE selects the access network based on the assistance info provided by RAN, acquired information from WLAN and rules.

In both cases, the assistance information may include the following:

  • 3GPP Network load
  • Resources allocation for UE
  • WLAN thresholds (e.g. RSSI)
  • RAN thresholds (e.g. RSRP)

Source: http://allabout4g.wordpress.com/2013/06/02/solution-1-ran-assisted-network-selection-and-traffic-steering/

GSA confirms 105 commercial LTE networks are launched

3 Oct

Operators are investing in LTE, a figure which is 41% more than a year ago, according to the GSA (Global mobile Suppliers Association) in an update to its Evolution to LTE report which is released today.

The report confirms that 105 operators have launched commercial LTE networks in 48 countries.

A further 194 network deployments are in progress. GSA forecasts that 159 networks will be commercially launched in 68 countries by the end of 2012, which is expected to rise to 195 live networks in 72 countries by the end of the following year.

A total of 299 operators are firmly committed to deploy commercial LTE networks in 93 countries, including those who have launched services. A further 52 operators in 11 more countries are at a pre-commitment stage, engaged in LTE technology trials, tests or studies, etc. Many of them are expected to also decide to introduce LTE services.

Alan Hadden, President of the GSA, said: “LTE is providing unprecedented performance and efficiency levels for operators in both developing and mature markets, and raising the mobile broadband experience for millions of consumers and enterprise users worldwide. Businesses in the sectors beyond traditional telecoms are giving a lot of attention to how LTE can help their customers and operations.“

70 operators have launched commercial LTE services in the past 12 months.

Summary of commercial LTE network launches annually:

  • 2009 = 2
  • 2010 = 15 (year-end cumulative total = 17)
  • 2011 = 30 (year-end cumulative total = 47)
  • 2012 to October 1 = 58 (cumulative total to date = 105)
  • GSA end 2012 outlook = 159 commercial LTE networks in 68 countries
  • GSA end 2013 outlook = 195 commercial LTE networks in 72 countries

GSA re-affirms LTE as the fastest developing mobile system technology ever which is entering a new phase as a mainstream technology by end of 2012. [continues after image]

The benefits from deploying LTE networks in re-farmed spectrum are increasingly recognized by regulators and the industry, emphasizing the flexibility and growing importance of 1800 MHz as a prime band for mobile broadband services delivery. LTE1800 (LTE in 1800 MHz spectrum) is launched on more than a third of all commercial LTE networks. Thirty-eight operators have commercially launched LTE1800 either as a single band system, or as part of a multi-band deployment. Commercial LTE1800 services are now available in 26 countries: Angola, Australia, Azerbaijan, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hong Kong, Hungary, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Mauritius, Namibia, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, South Korea, and UAE.

Eleven operators have launched commercial service using the LTE TDD mode in unpaired spectrum, with at least another 16 commercial network deployments in progress.

The LTE standard was specified by 3GPP with an FDD mode for use in paired spectrum, and a TDD mode being the optimal solution for use in unpaired spectrum. FDD and TDD modes are fully complementary. TDD shares most of the FDD design and standards and uses a common core network. Some operators have commercially launched LTE service using both FDD and TDD.

The Evolution to LTE report is researched and published by GSA and provides a concise update of the business drivers, objectives and targets for LTE – Long Term Evolution and the evolved packet system, including network operator commitments, deployments, launches, trials, the growing eco-system including device availability, spectrum requirements and developments, Voice over LTE developments, standardization activities including LTE-Advanced, and more. The report is available as a free download to registered site users at www.gsacom.com/gsm_3g/info_papers

Source: http://www.gsacom.com/news/gsa_361.php?goback=%2Egde_136744_member_170883784

VoLTE billing architecture explained

25 Sep

Charging is an important aspect for VoLTE calls and a must for commercial deployment— but it literally pays to get it right. As the same session flows through PGW in LTE network and IMS core there is a danger that subscribers could be double charged for both data and voice for the same call.

IMS nodes provide the necessary means to solve the billing issues. During the SIP call establishment or message transaction IMS nodes generates an IMS correlation id for each and every event. IMS correlation ids are included in the CDR for each VoLTE calls. During dedicated bearer establishment for VoLTE calls PCSCF and PGW exchange ICID and GCID through PCRF Rx/Gx messages. Based upon VoLTE APN bearer establishment PGW can redirect all the VoLTE charging information to a different billing server to avoid double charge of voice and data sessions.

ICID and GCID in CDR help to correlate the call in the IMS and access network. IMS charging information is transferred to billing system through Diameter or ISC interfaces.

Charging can be based on

• Duration Based Charging

• Event based charging

• Volume based charging

Single call with different access legs can be easily correlated by billing servers since all the calls are anchored by IMS.

Source: http://lteconference.wordpress.com/2012/09/24/volte-billing-architecture-explained/ 24 Sep 2012 Written by dancoleinforma

%d bloggers like this: