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Comparative Study WIFI vs. WIMAX

5 Sep

Wireless networking has become an important area of research in academic and industry. The main objectives of this paper is to gain in-depth knowledge about the Wi-Fi- WiMAX technology and how it works and understand the problems about the WiFiWiMAX technology in maintaining and deployment. The challenges in wireless networks include issues like security, seamless handover, location and emergency services, cooperation, and QoS. The performance of the WiMAX is better than the Wi-Fi and also it provide the good response in the access. It’s evaluated the Quality of Service (Qos) in Wi-Fi compare with WiMAX and provides the various kinds of security Mechanisms. Authentication to verify. The identity of the authorized communicating client stations. Confidentiality (Privacy) to secure that the wirelessly conveyed information will remain private and protected. Take necessary actions and configurations that are needed in order to deploy Wi-Fi -WiMAX with increased levels of security and privacy.

Download: ART20161474


A total of 192 telcos are deploying advanced LTE technologies

15 Aug

A total of 521 operators have commercially launched LTE, LTE-Advanced or LTE-Advanced Pro networks in 170 countries, according to a recent report focused on the state of LTE network reach released by the Global mobile Suppliers Association.

In 2015, 74 mobile operators globally launched 4G LTE networks, GSA said. Bermuda, Gibraltar, Jamaica, Liberia, Myanmar, Samoa and Sudan are amongst the latest countries to launch 4G LTE technology.

The report also reveals that 738 operators are currently investing in LTE networks across 194 countries. This figure comprises 708 firm network deployment commitments in 188 countries – of which 521 networks have launched – and 30 precommitment trials in another 6 countries.

According to the GSA, active LTE network deployments will reach 560 by the end of this year.

A total of 192 telcos, which currently offer standard LTE services, are deploying LTE-A or LTE-A Pro technologies in 84 countries, of which 147 operators have commercially launched superfast LTE-A or LTE-A Pro wireless broadband services in 69 countries.

“LTE-Advanced is mainstream. Over 100 LTE-Advanced networks today are compatible with Category 6 (151-300 Mbps downlink) smartphones and other user devices. The number of Category 9 capable networks (301-450 Mbps) is significant and expanding. Category 11 systems (up to 600 Mbps) are commercially launched, leading the way to Gigabit service being introduced by year-end,” GSA Research VP Alan Hadden said.

The GSA study also showed that the 1800 MHz band continues to be the most widely used spectrum for LTE deployments. This frequency is used in 246 commercial LTE deployments in 110 countries, representing 47% of total LTE deployments. The next most popular band for LTE systems is 2.6 GHz, which is used in 121 networks. Also, the 800 MHz band is being used by 119 LTE operators.

A total of 146 operators are currently investing in Voice over LTE deployments, trials or studies in 68 countries, according to the study. GSA forecasts there will be over 100 LTE network operators offering VoLTE service by the end of this year.

Unlicensed spectrum technologies boost global indoor small cell market

In related news, a recent study by ABI Research forecasts that the global indoor small cell market will reach revenue of $1.8 billion in 2021, manly fueled by increasing support for unlicensed spectrum technologies, including LTE-License Assisted Access and Wi-Fi.

The research firm predicts support for LTE-based and Wi-Fi technologies using unlicensed spectrum within small cell equipment will expand to comprise 51% of total annual shipments by 2021 at a compound annual growth rate of 47%

“Unlicensed LTE (LTE-U) had a rough start, meeting negative and skeptic reactions to its possible conflict with Wi-Fi operations in the 5 GHz bands. But the ongoing standardization and coexistence efforts increased the support in the technology ecosystem,” said Ahmed Ali, senior analyst at ABI Research.

“The dynamic and diverse nature of indoor venues calls for an all-inclusive small cell network that intelligently adapts to different user requirements,” the analyst added. “Support for multioperation features like 3G/4G and Wi-Fi/LAA access is necessary for the enterprise market.”

LTE network

Critical (Outdoor) IoT Applications Need Robust Connectivity

14 Apr

It’s safe to assume that the majority of all Internet of Things (IoT) devices operate near large populations of people. Of course, right? This is where the action happens – smart devices, smart cars, smart infrastructure, smart cities, etc. Plus, the cost of getting “internet-connected” in these areas is relatively low – public access to Wi-Fi is becoming widely available, cellular coverage is blanketed over cities, etc.

But what about the devices out in the middle of nowhere? The industrial technology that integrates and communicates with heavy machinery that isn’t always “IP connected,” operating in locations not only hard to reach, but often exposed harsh weather. The fact remains, this is where IoT connectivity is potentially most challenging to enable, but also perhaps the most important to have. Why? Because these numerous assets help deliver the lifeblood for our critical infrastructures – electricity, water, energy, etc. Without these legacy and geographically dispersed machines, a smart world may never exist.

But let’s back up for a second and squash any misconceptions about the “industrial” connectivity picture we’re painting above. Take this excerpt from Varun Nagaraj in a past O’Reilly Radar article:

“… unlike most consumer IoT scenarios, which involve digital devices that already have IP support built in or that can be IP enabled easily, typical IIoT scenarios involve pre-IP legacy devices. And unfortunately, IP enablement isn’t free. Industrial device owners need a direct economic benefit to justify IP enabling their non-IP devices. Alternatively, they need a way to gain the benefits of IP without giving up their investments in their existing industrial devices – that is, without stranding these valuable industrial assets.

Rather than seeing industrial device owners as barriers to progress, we should be looking for ways to help industrial devices become as connected as appropriate – for example, for improved peer-to-peer operation and to contribute their important small data to the larger big-data picture of the IoT.”

It sounds like the opportunity ahead for the industrial IoT is to  provide industrial devices and machines with an easy migration path to internet connectivity by creatively addressing its constraints (outdated protocols, legacy equipment, the need for both wired and wireless connections, etc.) and enabling new abilities for the organization.

Let’s look at an example of how this industrial IoT transformation is happening.

Voice, Video, Data & Sensors
Imagine you are a technician from a power plant in an developing part of the world with lots of desert terrain. The company you work for provides power to an entire region of people, which is difficult considering the power plant location is in an extremely remote location facing constant sand blasts and extreme temperatures. The reliance your company places on the industrial devices being used to monitor and control all facets of the power plant itself is paramount. If they fail, the plant fails and your customers are without power. This is where reliable, outdoor IoT connectivity is a must:

  • With a plethora of machinery and personnel onsite, you need a self-healing Wi-Fi mesh network over the entire power plant so that internet connections aren’t lost mid-operation.
  • Because the traditional phone-line system doesn’t extend to the remote location of the power plant, and cell coverage is weak, the company requires Voice over IP (VoIP) communications. Also, because there’s no physical hardware involved, personnel never needs to worry about maintenance, repairs or upgrades.
  • The company wants to ensure no malfeasance takes place onsite, especially due to the mission-critical nature of the power plant. Therefore, security camera control and video transport is required back to a central monitoring center.
  • Power plants require cooling applications to ensure the integrity and safety of the power generation taking place. The company requires Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) networking for monitoring the quality of the inbound water being used to cool the equipment.
  • The company wants to provide visibility to its customers in how much energy they are consuming. This requires Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) backhaul networking to help manage the energy consumption taking place within the smart grid.
  • Since the power plant is in a remote location, there is only one tiny village nearby being used by the families and workers at the power plant. The company wants to provide a Wi-Fi hotspot for the residents.

From the outline above, it sounds like a lot of different IoT networking devices will need to be used to address all of these applications at the power plant. If the opportunity ahead for the industrial IoT is to  provide industrial devices and machines with an easy migration path to IP connectivity, what solutions are available to make this a reality for the power plant situation above? Not just that, but a solution with proven reliability in extreme environmental conditions? We might know one


The Future of Wireless – In a nutshell: More wireless IS the future.

10 Mar

Electronics is all about communications. It all started with the telegraph in 1845, followed by the telephone in 1876, but communications really took off at the turn of the century with wireless and the vacuum tube. Today it dominates the electronics industry, and wireless is the largest part of it. And you can expect the wireless sector to continue its growth thanks to the evolving cellular infrastructure and movements like the Internet of Things (IoT). Here is a snapshot of what to expect in the years to come.

The State of 4G

4G means Long Term Evolution (LTE). And LTE is the OFDM technology that is the dominant framework of the cellular system today. 2G and 3G systems are still around, but 4G was initially implemented in the 2011-2012 timeframe. LTE became a competitive race by the carriers to see who could expand 4G the fastest. Today, LTE is mostly implemented by the major carriers in the U.S., Asia, and Europe. Its rollout is not yet complete—varying considerably by carrier—but nearing that point. LTE has been wildly successful, with most smartphone owners rely upon it for fast downloads and video streaming. Still, all is not perfect.

Fig. 1

1. The Ceragon FibeAir IP-20C operates in the 6 to 42 GHz range and is typical of the backhaul to be used in 5G small cell networks.

While LTE promised download speeds up to 100 Mb/s, that has not been achieved in practice. Rates of up to 40 or 50 Mb/s can be achieved, but only under special circumstances. With a full five-bar connection and minimal traffic, such speeds can be seen occasionally. A more normal rate is probably in the 10 to 15 Mb/s range. At peak business hours during the day, you are probably lucky to get more than a few megabits per second. That hardly makes LTE a failure, but it does mean that it has yet to live up to its potential.

One reason why LTE is not delivering the promised performance is too many subscribers. LTE has been oversold, and today everyone has a smartphone and expects fast access. But with such heavy use, download speeds decrease in order to serve the many.

There is hope for LTE, though. Most carriers have not yet implemented LTE-Advanced, an enhancement that promises greater speeds. LTE-A uses carrier aggregation (CA) to boost speed. CA combines LTE’s standard 20 MHz bandwidths into 40, 80, or 100 MHz chunks, either contiguous or not, to enable higher data rates. LTE-A also specifies MIMO configurations to 8 x 8. Most carriers have not implemented the 4 x 4 MIMO configurations specified by plain-old LTE. So as carriers enable these advanced features, there is potential for download speeds up to 1 Gb/s. Market data firm ABI Research forecasts that LTE carrier aggregation will power 61% of smartphones in 2020.

This LTE-CA effort is generally known as LTE-Advanced Pro or 4.5G LTE. This is a mix of technologies defined by the 3GPP standards development group as Release 13. It includes carrier aggregation as well as Licensed Assisted Access (LAA), a technique that uses LTE within the 5 GHz unlicensed Wi-Fi spectrum. It also deploys LTE-Wi-Fi Link Aggregation (LWA) and dual connectivity, allowing a smartphone to talk simultaneously with a small cell site and an Wi-Fi access point. Other features are too numerous to detail here, but the overall goal is to extend the life of LTE by lowering latency and boosting data rate to 1 Gb/s.

But that’s not all. LTE will be able to deliver greater performance as carriers begin to facilitate their small-cell strategy, delivering higher data rates to more subscribers. Small cells are simply miniature cellular basestations that can be installed anywhere to fill in the gaps of macro cell site coverage, adding capacity where needed.

Another method of boosting performance is to use Wi-Fi offload. This technique transfers a fast download to a nearby Wi-Fi access point (AP) when available. Only a few carriers have made this available, but most are considering an LTE improvement called LTE-U (U for unlicensed). This is a technique similar to LAA that uses the 5 GHz unlicensed band for fast downloads when the network cannot handle it. This presents a spectrum conflict with the latest version of Wi-Fi 802.11ac that uses the 5 GHz band. Compromises have been worked out to make this happen.

So yes, there is plenty of life left in 4G. Carriers will eventually put into service all or some of these improvements over the next few years. For example, we have yet to see voice-over-LTE (VoLTE) deployed extensively. Just remember that the smartphone manufacturers will also make hardware and/or software upgrades to make these advanced LTE improvements work. These improvements will probably finally occur just about the time we begin to see 5G systems come on line.

5G Revealed

5G is so not here yet. What you are seeing and hearing at this time is premature hype. The carriers and suppliers are already doing battle to see who can be first with 5G. Remember the 4G war of the past years? And the real 4G (LTE-A) is not even here yet. Nevertheless, work on 5G is well underway. It is still a dream in the eyes of the carriers that are endlessly seeking new applications, more subscribers, and higher profits.

Fig. 2a

2a. This is a model of the typical IoT device electronics. Many different input sensors are available. The usual partition is the MCU and radio (TX) in one chip and the sensor and its circuitry in another. One chip solutions are possible.

The Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is working on the 5G standard, which is still a few years away. The International Telecommunications Union (ITU), which will bless and administer the standard—called IMT-2020—says that the final standard should be available by 2020. Yet we will probably see some early pre-standard versions of 5G as the competitors try to out-market one another. Some claim 5G will come on line by 2017 or 2018 in some form. We shall see, as 5G will not be easy. It is clearly going to be one of the most, if not the most, complex wireless system ever.  Full deployment is not expected until after 2022. Asia is expected to lead the U.S. and Europe in implementation.

The rationale for 5G is to overcome the limitations of 4G and to add capability for new applications. The limitations of 4G are essentially subscriber capacity and limited data rates. The cellular networks have already transitioned from voice-centric to data-centric, but further performance improvements are needed for the future.

Fig. 2b

2b. This block diagram shows another possible IoT device configuration with an output actuator and RX.

Furthermore, new applications are expected. These include carrying ultra HD 4K video, virtual reality content, Internet of Things (IoT) and machine-to-machine (M2M) use cases, and connected cars. Many are still forecasting 20 to 50 billion devices online, many of which will use the cellular network. While most IoT and M2M devices operate at low speed, higher network rates are needed to handle the volume. Other potential applications include smart cities and automotive safety communications.

5G will probably be more revolutionary than evolutionary. It will involve creating a new network architecture that will overlay the 4G network. This new network will use distributed small cells with fiber or millimeter wave backhaul (Fig. 1), be cost- and power consumption-conscious, and be easily scalable. In addition, the 5G network will be more software than hardware. 5G will use software-defined networking (SDN), network function virtualization (NFV), and self-organizing network (SON) techniques. Here are some other key features to expect:

  • Use of millimeter (mm) -wave bands. Early 5G may also use 3.5- and 5-GHz bands. Frequencies from about 14 GHz to 79 GHz are being considered. No final assignments have been made, but the FCC says it will expedite allocations as soon as possible. Testing is being done at 24, 28, 37, and 73 GHz.
  • New modulation schemes are being considered. Most are some variant of OFDM. Two or more may be defined in the standard for different applications.
  • Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) will be incorporated in some form to extend range, data rate, and link reliability.
  • Antennas will be phased arrays at the chip level, with adaptive beam forming and steering.
  • Lower latency is a major goal. Less than 5 ms is probably a given, but less than 1 ms is the target.
  • Data rates of 1 Gb/s to 10 Gb/s are anticipated in bandwidths of 500 MHz or 1 GHz.
  • Chips will be made of GaAs, SiGe, and some CMOS.

One of the biggest challenges will be integrating 5G into the handsets. Our current smartphones are already jam-packed with radios, and 5G radios will be more complex than ever. Some predict that the carriers will be ready way before the phones are sorted out. Can we even call them phones anymore?

So we will eventually get to 5G, but in the meantime, we’ll have to make do with LTE. And really–do you honestly feel that you need 5G?

What’s Next for Wi-Fi?

Next to cellular, Wi-Fi is our go-to wireless link. Like Ethernet, it is one of our beloved communications “utilities”. We expect to be able to access Wi-Fi anywhere, and for the most part we can. Like most of the popular wireless technologies, it is constantly in a state of development. The latest iteration being rolled out is called 802.11ac, and provides rates up to 1.3 Gb/s in the 5 GHz unlicensed band. Most access points, home routers, and smartphones do not have it yet, but it is working its way into all of them. Also underway is the process of finding applications other than video and docking stations for the ultrafast 60 GHz (57-64 GHz) 802.11ad standard. It is a proven and cost effective technology, but who needs 3 to 7 Gb/s rates up to 10 meters?

At any given time there are multiple 802.11 development projects ongoing. Here are a few of the most significant.

  • 802.11af – This is a version of Wi-Fi in the TV band white spaces (54 to 695 MHz). Data is transmitted in local 6- (or 😎 MHz bandwidth channels that are unoccupied. Cognitive radio methods are required. Data rates up to about 26 Mb/s are possible. Sometimes referred to as White-Fi, the main attraction of 11af is that the possible range at these lower frequencies is many miles, and non-line of sight (NLOS) through obstacles is possible. This version of Wi-Fi is not in use yet, but has potential for IoT applications.
  • 802.11ah – Designated as HaLow, this standard is another variant of Wi-Fi that uses the unlicensed ISM 902-928 MHz band. It is a low-power, low speed (hundreds of kb/s) service with a range up to a kilometer. The target is IoT applications.
  • 802.11ax – 11ax is an upgrade to 11ac. It can be used in the 2.4- and 5-GHz bands, but most likely will operate in the 5-GHz band exclusively so that it can use 80 or 160 MHz bandwidths. Along with 4 x 4 MIMO and OFDA/OFDMA, peak data rates to 10 Gb/s are expected. Final ratification is not until 2019, although pre-ax versions will probably be complete.
  • 802.11ay – This is an extension of the 11ad standard. It will use the 60-GHz band, and the goal is at least a data rate of 20 Gb/s. Another goal is to extend the range to 100 meters so that it will have greater application such as backhaul for other services. This standard is not expected until 2017.

Wireless Proliferation by IoT and M2M

Wireless is certainly the future for IoT and M2M. Though wired solutions are not being ruled out, look for both to be 99% wireless. While predictions of 20 to 50 billion connected devices still seems unreasonable, by defining IoT in the broadest terms there could already be more connected devices than people on this planet today. By the way, who is really keeping count?

Fig. 3

3. This Monarch module from Sequans Communications implements LTE-M in both 1.4-MHz and 200-kHz bandwidths for IoT and M2M applications.

The typical IoT device is a short range, low power, low data rate, battery operated device with a sensor, as shown in Fig. 2a. Alternately, it could be some remote actuator, as shown in Fig. 2b. Or the device could be a combination of the two. Both usually connect to the Internet through a wireless gateway but could also connect via a smartphone. The link to the gateway is wireless. The question is, what wireless standard will be used?

Wi-Fi is an obvious choice because it is so ubiquitous, but it is overkill for some apps and a bit too power-hungry for some. Bluetooth is another good option, especially the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) version. Bluetooth’s new mesh and gateway additions make it even more attractive. ZigBee is another ready-and-waiting alternative. So is Z-Wave. Then there are multiple 802.15.4 variants, like 6LoWPAN.

Add to these the newest options that are part of a Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) movement. These new wireless choices offer longer-range networked connections that are usually not possible with the traditional technologies mentioned above. Most operate in unlicensed spectrum below 1 GHz. Some of the newest competitors for IoT apps are:

  • LoRa – An invention of Semtech and supported by Link Labs, this technology uses FM chirp at low data rates to get a range up to 2-15 km.
  • Sigfox – A French development that uses an ultra narrowband modulation scheme at low data rates to send short messages.
  • Weightless – This one uses the TV white spaces with cognitive radio methods for longer ranges and data rates to 16 Mb/s.
  • Nwave – This is similar to Sigfox but details minimal at this time.
  • Ingenu – Unlike the others, this one uses the 2.4-GHz band and a unique random phase multiple access scheme.
  • HaLow – This is 802.11ah Wi-Fi, as described earlier.
  • White-Fi – This is 802.11af, as described earlier.

There are lots of choices for any developer. But there are even more options to consider.

Cellular is definitely an alternative for IoT, as it has been the mainstay of M2M for over a decade. M2M uses mostly 2G and 3G wireless data modules for monitoring remote machines or devices and tracking vehicles. While 2G (GSM) will ultimately be phased out (next year by AT&T, but T-Mobile is holding on longer), 3G will still be around.

Now a new option is available: LTE. Specifically, it is called LTE-M and uses a cut-down version of LTE in 1.4-MHz bandwidths. Another version is NB-LTE-M, which uses 200-kHz bandwidths for lower speed uses. Then there is NB-IoT, which allocates resource blocks (180-kHz chunks of 15-kHz LTE subcarriers) to low-speed data. All of these variations will be able to use the existing LTE networks with software upgrades. Modules and chips for LTE-M are already available, like those from Sequans Communications(Fig. 3).

One of the greatest worries about the future of IoT is the lack of a single standard. That is probably not going to happen. Fragmentation will be rampant, especially in these early days of adoption. Perhaps there will eventually be only a few standards to emerge, but don’t bet on it. It may not even really be necessary.

3 Things Wireless Must Have to Prosper

  • Spectrum – Like real estate, they are not making any more spectrum. All the “good” spectrum (roughly 50 MHz to 6 GHz) has already been assigned. It is especially critical for the cellular carriers who never have enough to offer greater subscriber capacity or higher data rates.  The FCC will auction off some available spectrum from the TV broadcasters shortly, which will help. In the meantime, look for more spectrum sharing ideas like the white spaces and LTE-U with Wi-Fi.
  • Controlling EMI – Electromagnetic interference of all kinds will continue to get worse as more wireless devices and systems are deployed. Interference will mean more dropped calls and denial of service for some. Regulation now controls EMI at the device level, but does not limit the number of devices in use. No firm solutions are defined, but some will be needed soon.
  • Security – Security measures are necessary to protect data and privacy. Encryption and authentication measures are available now. If only more would use them.
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3 Mar

The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) Profile for Voice and Video, documented in this Permanent Reference Document (PRD), identifies a minimum mandatory set of features which are defined in 3GPP specifications that a wireless device (the User Equipment (UE)) and network are required to implement in order to guarantee interoperable, high quality IMS-based telephony and conversational video services over Wi-Fi access networks.

Download IMS Profile for Voice, Video and SMS over Wi-Fi – Version 3.0 – 01 March 2016


Wireless Routers 101

14 Feb

A wireless router is the central piece of gear for a residential network. It manages network traffic between the Internet (via the modem) and a wide variety of client devices, both wired and wireless. Many of today’s consumer routers are loaded with features, incorporating wireless connectivity, switching, I/O for external storage devices as well as comprehensive security functionality. A wired switch, often taking the form of four gigabit Ethernet ports on the back of most routers, is largely standard these days. A network switch negotiates network traffic, sending data to a specific device, whereas network hubs simply retransmit data to all of the recipients. Although dedicated switches can be added to your network, most home networks don’t incorporate them as standalone appliances. Then there’s the wireless access point capability. Most wireless router models support dual bands, communicating over 2.4 and 5GHz and many are also able to connect to several networks simultaneously.

Part of trusting our always-on Internet connections is the belief that private information is protected at the router, which incorporates features to limit home network access. These security features can include a firewall, parental controls, access scheduling, guest networks and even a demilitarized zone (DMZ), referring to the military concept of a buffer zone between neighboring countries). The DMZ, also called a perimeter network, is a subnetwork where vulnerable processes like mail, Web and FTP servers can be placed so that, if it is breached, the rest of the network isn’t compromised. The firewall is a core component in today’s story. In fact, what differentiates a wireless router from a dedicated switch or wireless access point is the firewall. Although Windows has its own software-based firewall, the router’s hardware firewall forms the first line of defense in keeping malicious content off the home network. The router’s firewall works by making sure packets were actually requested by the user before allowing them to pass through to the local network.

Finally, you have peripheral connectivity like USB and eSATA. These ports make it possible to share external hard drives or even printers. They offer a convenient way to access networked storage without the need for a dedicated PC with a shared disk or NAS running 24/7.

Some Internet service providers (ISPs) integrate routers into their modems, yielding an “all-in-one” device. This is done to simplify setup, so the ISP has less hardware to support. It can also be advantageous to space-constrained customers. However, in general, these integrated routers do not get firmware updates as frequently, and they’re often not as robust as stand-alone routers. An example of a combo modem/router is Netgear’s Nighthawk AC1900 Wi-Fi cable modem router. In addition to its 802.11ac wireless connectivity, it offers a DOCSIS 3.0 24 x 8 broadband cable modem.

DOCSIS stands for “data over cable service interface specifications,” and version 3.0 is the current cable modem spec. DOCSIS 1.0 and 2.0 defines a single channel for data transfers, while DOCSIS 3.0 specifies the use of multiple channels to allow for faster speeds. Current DOCSIS 3.0 modems commonly use 8, 12 or 16 channels, with 24-channel modems also available. Each channel offers a theoretical maximum download speed of 38 Mb/s and a maximum upload speed of 27 Mb/s. The standard’s next update, DOCSIS 3.1, promises to offer download speeds of up to 10 Gb/s and upload speeds of up to 1 Gb/s.

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Wi-Fi Standards

The oldest wireless routers supported 802.11b, which worked on the 2.4GHz band and topped out at 11 Mb/s. This original Wi-Fi standard was approved in 1999, hence the name 802.11b-1999 (later it was shortened to 802.11b).

Another early Wi-Fi standard was 802.11a, also ratified by the IEEE in 1999. It operated on the less congested 5GHz band and maxed out at 54 Mb/s, although real-world throughput was closer to half that number. Given a shorter wavelength than 2.4GHz, the range of 802.11a was shorter, which may have contributed to less uptake. While 802.11a enjoyed popularity in some enterprise applications, it was largely eclipsed by the more pervasive 802.11b in homes and small businesses. Notably, 802.11a’s 5GHz band became part of later standards.

Eventually, 802.11b was replaced by 802.11g on the 2.4GHz band, upping throughput to 54 Mb/s. It all makes for an interesting history lesson, but if your wireless equipment is old enough for that information to be relevant, it’s time to consider an upgrade.


In the fall of 2009, 802.11n was ratified, paving the way for one device to operate on both the 2.4GHz and 5GHz bands. Speeds topped out at 600 Mb/s. With N600 and N900 gear, two separate service set identifiers (SSIDs) were transmitted—one on 2.4GHz and the other on 5GHz—while less expensive N150 and N300 routers cut costs by transmitting only on the 2.4GHz band.

Wireless N networking introduced an important advancement called MIMO, an acronym for “multiple input/multiple output.” This technology divides the data stream between multiple antennas. We’ll go into more depth on MIMO shortly.

If you’re satisfied with the performance of your N wireless gear, then hold onto it for now. After all, it does still exceed the maximum throughput offered by most ISPs. Here are some examples of available 802.11n product speeds:

Type 2.4GHz (Mb/s) 5GHz (Mb/s)
N150 150 N/A
N300 300 N/A
N600 300 300
N900 450 450


The 802.11ac standard, also known as Wireless AC, was released in January 2014. It broadcasts and receives on both the 2.4GHz and 5GHz bands, but the 2.4GHz frequency on an 802.11ac router is really a carryover of 802.11n. That older standard maxed out at 150 Mb/s on each spatial stream, with up to four simultaneous streams, for a total throughput of 600 Mb/s.

In 802.11ac MIMO was also refined with increased channel bandwidth and support for up to eight spatial streams. Beamforming was introduced with Wireless N gear, but it was proprietary, and with AC, it was standardized to work across different manufacturers’ products. Beamforming is a technology designed to optimize the transmission of Wi-Fi around obstacles by using the antennas to direct and focus the transmission to where it is needed.

With 802.11ac firmly established as the current Wi-Fi standard, enthusiasts shopping for routers should consider one of these devices, as they offer a host of improvements over N gear. Here are some examples of available 802.11ac product speeds:

Type 2.4GHz (Mb/s) 5GHz (Mb/s)
AC600 150 433
AC750 300 433
AC1000 300 650
AC1200 300 867
AC1600 300 1300
AC1750 450 1300
AC1900 600 1300
AC3200 600 1300, 1300

The maximum throughput achieved is the same on AC1900 and AC3200 for both the 2.4GHz and 5GHz bands. The difference is that AC3200 can transmit two simultaneous 5GHz networks to achieve such a high total throughput.

The latest wireless standard with products currently hitting the market is 802.11ac Wave 2. It implements multiple-user, multiple-input, multiple-output, popularly referred to as MU-MIMO. In broad terms, this technology provides dedicated bandwidth to more devices than was previously possible.

Wi-Fi Features


Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO), first seen on 802.11n devices, takes advantage of a radio phenomenon known as multipath propagation, which increases the range and speed of Wi-Fi. Multipath propagation is based on the ability of a radio signal to take slightly different pathways between the router and client, including bouncing off intervening objects as well as floors and ceilings. With multiple antennas on both the router as well as the client—and provided they both support MIMO—then using antenna diversity can combine simultaneous data streams to increase throughput.

When MIMO was originally implemented, it was SU-MIMO, designed for a Single User. In SU-MIMO, all of the router’s bandwidth is devoted to a single client, maximizing throughput to that one device. While this is certainly useful, today’s routers communicate with multiple clients at one time, limiting the SU-MIMO’s technology’s utility.

The next step in MIMO’s evolution is MU-MIMO, which stands for Multiple User-MIMO. Whereas SU-MIMO was restricted to a single client, MU-MIMO can now extend the benefit to up to four. The first MU-MIMO router released, the Linksys EA8500, features four external antennas that facilitate MU-MIMO technology allowing the router to provide four simultaneous continuous data streams to clients.

Before MU-MIMO, a Wi-Fi network was the equivalent of a wired network connected through a hub. This was inefficient; a lot of bandwidth is wasted when data is sent to clients that don’t need it. With MU-MIMO, the wireless network becomes the equivalent of a wired network controlled by a switch. With data transmission able to occur simultaneously across multiple channels, it is significantly faster, and the next client can “talk” sooner. Therefore, just as the transition from hub to switch was a huge leap forward for wired networks, so will MU-MIMO be for wireless technology.


Beamforming was originally implemented in 802.11n, but was not standardized between routers and clients; it essentially did not work between different manufacturers’ products. This was rectified with 802.11ac, and now beamforming works across different manufacturers’ gear.

What beamforming does is, rather than have the router transmit its Wi-Fi signal in all directions, it allows the router to focus the signal to where it is needed to increase its strength. Using light as an analogy, beamforming takes the camping lantern and turns it into a flashlight that focuses its beam. In some cases, the Wi-Fi client can also support beamforming to focus the signal of the client back to the router.

While beamforming is implemented in 802.11ac, manufacturers are still allowed to innovate in their own way. For example, Netgear offers Beamforming+ in some of its devices, which enhances throughput and range between the router and client when they are both Netgear products and support Beamforming+.

Other Wi-Fi Features

When folks visit your house, they often want to jump on your wireless network, whether to save on cellular data costs or to connect a notebook/tablet. Rather than hand out your Wi-Fi password, try configuring a Guest Network. This facilitates access to network bandwidth, while keeping guests off of other networked resources. In a way, the Guest Network is a security feature, and feature-rich routers offer this option.

Another feature to look for is QoS, which stands for Quality of Service. This capability serves to prioritize network traffic from the router to a client. It’s particularly useful in situations where a continuous data stream is required; for example, with services like Netflix or multi-player games. In fact, routers advertised as gaming-optimized typically include provisions for QoS, though you can find the functionality on non-gaming routers as well.

Another option is Parental Control, which allows you to act as an administrator for the network, controlling your child’s Internet access. The limits can include blocking certain websites, as well as shutting down network access at bedtime.

Wireless Router Security

There are two types of firewalls: hardware and software. Microsoft’s Windows operating system has a software firewall built into it. Third-party firewalls can be installed as well. Unfortunately, these only protect the device they’re installed on. While they’re an essential part of a Windows-based PC, the rest of your network is otherwise exposed.

An essential function of the router is its hardware firewall, known as a network perimeter firewall. The router serves to block incoming traffic that was not requested, thereby operating as an initial line of defense. In an enterprise setup, the hardware firewall is a dedicated box; in a residential router, it’s integrated.

A router is also designed to look for the address source in packets traveling over the network, relating them to address requests. When the packets aren’t requested, the firewall rejects them. In addition, a router can apply filtering policies, using rules to allow and restrict packets before they traverse the home network. The rules consider the source of a packet’s IP address and its destination. Moreover, packets are matched to the port they should be on. This is all done at the router to keep unwanted data off the home network.

The wireless router is responsible for the Wi-Fi signal’s security, too. There are various protocols for this, including WEP, WPA and WPA2. WEP, which stands for Wired Equivalent Privacy, is the oldest standard, dating back to 1999. It uses 64-bit, and subsequently 128-bit encryption. As a result of its fixed key, WEP is widely considered quite insecure. Back in 2005, the FBI showed how WEP could be broken in minutes using publicly available software.

WEP was supplanted by WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) featuring 256-bit encryption. Addressing the significant shortcoming of WEP, a fixed key, WPA’s improvement was based on the Temporal Key Integrity Program (TKIP). This security protocol uses a per-packet key system that offers a significant upgrade over WEP. WPA for home routers is implemented as WPA-PSK, which uses a pre-shared key (PSK, better known as the Wi-Fi password that folks tend to lose and forget). While the security of WPA-PSK via TKIP was definitely better than WEP, it also proved vulnerable to attack and is not considered secure.

Introduced in 2006, WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access 2) is the more robust security specification. Like its predecessor, WPA2 uses a pre-shared key. However, unlike WPA’s TKIP, WPA2 utilizes AES (Advanced Encryption Standard), a standard approved by the NSA for use with top secret information.

Any modern router will support all of these security standards for the purpose of compatibility, as none of them are new, but ideally, you want to configure your router to employ WPA2/AES. There is no WPA3 on the horizon because WPA2 is still considered secure. However, there are published methods for compromising it, so accept that no network is impenetrable.

All of these Wi-Fi security standards rely on your choice of a strong password. It used to be that an eight-character sequence was considered sufficient. But given the compute power available today (particularly from GPUs), even longer passwords are sometimes recommended. Use a combination of numbers, uppercase and lowercase letters, and special characters. The password should also avoid dictionary words or easy substitutions, such as “p@$$word,” or simple additions—for example, “password123” or “passwordabc.”

While most enthusiasts know to change the router’s Wi-Fi password from its factory default, not everyone knows to change the router’s admin password, thus inviting anyone to come along and manipulate the router’s settings. Use a different password for the Wi-Fi network and router log-in page.

In the event that you lose your password, don’t fret. Simply reset the router to its factory state, reverting the log-in information to its default. Manufacturers have different methods for doing this, but many routers have a physical reset button, usually located on the rear of the device. After resetting, all custom settings are lost, and you’ll need to set a new password.

Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) is another popular feature on higher-end routers. Rather than manually typing in a password, WPS lets you press a button on the router and adapter, triggering a brief discovery period. Another approach is the WPS PIN method, which facilitates discovery through the entry of a short code on either the router or client. It’s vulnerable to brute-force attack, though, so many enthusiasts recommend simply disabling WPS altogether.


Web And Mobile Interfaces

Wireless routers are typically controlled through a software interface built into their firmware, which can be accessed through the router’s network address. Through this interface you can enable the router’s features, define the parameters and configure security settings. Routers employ a variety of custom operating environments, though most are Web-based. Some manufacturers do offer smartphone-enabled apps for iOS and Android, too. Here’s is an example of a software interface for the Netis WF2780, seen on a Windows desktop. While not easy to use for amateurs, it does allow for control over all the settings. Here we can see the Bandwidth Control Configuration in the Advanced Settings.

Routers offer a wide range of features, and each vendor has its own set of unique capabilities. Overall, though, they do share generally similar feature sets, including:

  • Quick Setup: For the less experienced user, Quick Setup is quite useful. This gets the device up and running with pre-configured settings, and does not require advanced networking knowledge. Of course, experienced users will want more control.
  • Wireless Configuration: This setting allows channel configuration. In some cases, the router’s power can be adjusted, depending on the application. Finally, the RF bandwidth can be selected as well. Analogous settings for 5GHz are available on a separate page.
  • Guest Network: The router software will provide the option to set up a separate Guest Network. This has the advantage of allowing visitors to use your Internet, without getting access to the entire network.
  • Security: This is where the SSIDs for each of the configured networks, as well as their passwords, can be configured.
  • Bandwidth Control: Since there is limited bandwidth, it can be controlled to provide the best experience for all (or at least the one who pays the bills). The amount of bandwidth that any user has, both on the download and upload sides, can be limited so one user does not monopolize all the bandwidth.
  • System Tools: Using this collection of tools, the router’s firmware can be upgraded and the time settings specified. This also provides a log of sites visited and stats on bandwidth used.

Here is a screenshot of a mobile app called QRSMobile for Android, which can simplify the setup of a wireless router, in this case the D-Link 820L.

This screenshot shows the smartphone app for the Google OnHub.



Open-Source Firmware

Historically, some of these vendor-provided software interfaces did not allow full control of all possible settings. Out of frustration, a community for open source router firmware development took shape. One popular example of its work is DD-WRT, which can be applied to a significant number of routers, letting you tinker with options in a granular fashion. In fact, some manufacturers even sell routers with DD-WRT installed. The AirStation Extreme AC 1750 is one such model.

Another advantage of open firmware is that you’re not at the mercy of a vendor in between updates. Older products don’t receive much attention, but DD-WRT is a constant work in progress. Other open source firmware projects in this space include OpenWRT and Tomato, but be mindful that not all routers support open firmware.


System Board Components

Inside a wireless router is a purpose-built system, complete with a processor, memory, power circuitry and a printed circuit board. These are all proprietary components, with closed specifications, and are not upgradeable.

The above image shows the internals of Netis’ N300 Gaming Router (WF2631). We see the following components:

  1. Status LEDs that indicate network/router activity
  2. Heat sink for the processor—these CPUs don’t use much power, and are cooled without a fan
  3. Antenna leads for the three external antennas to connect to the PCB
  4. Four Ethernet LAN ports for the home network
  5. WPS Button
  6. Ethernet WAN port that connects to a provider’s modem
  7. Power jack
  8. Factory reset button
  9. 10/100BASE-TX transformer modules — these support the RJ45 connectors, which are the Ethernet ports.
  10. 100 Base-T dual-port through-hole magnetics. These are designed for IEEE802.3u (Ethernet ports).
  11. Memory chip (DRAM)

Antenna Types

As routers send and receive data across the 2.4 and 5GHz bands, they need antennas. There are multiple antenna choices: external versus internal designs, routers with one antenna and others with several. If a single antenna is good, then more must be better, right? And this is the current trend, with flagship routers like the Nighthawk X6 Tri-Band Wi-Fi Router featuring as many as six antennas, which can each be fine-tuned in terms of positioning to optimize performance. A setup like that facilitates three simultaneous network signals: one 2.4GHz and two 5GHz.

While a router with an internal antenna might look sleeker, these designs are built to blend into a living area. The range and throughput of external antennas are typically superior. They also have the advantages of reaching up to a higher position, operating at a greater distance from the router’s electronics, reducing interference, and offering some degree of configurability to tune signal transmission. This makes a better argument for function over form.

The more antennas you see on a router, the more transmit and receive radios there are, corresponding to the number of supported spatial streams. For example, a 3×3 router employs three antennas and handles three simultaneous spatial streams. Using current standards, these additional spatial streams account for much of how performance is multiplied. The Netis N300 router, pictured on the left, features three external antennae for better signal strength.

Ethernet Ports

While the wireless aspect of a wireless router gets most of the attention, a majority also enable wired connectivity. A popular configuration is one WAN port for connecting to an externally-facing modem and four LAN ports for attaching local devices.

The LAN ports top out at either 100 Mb/s or 1 Gb/s, also referred to as gigabit Ethernet or GbE. While older hardware can still be found with 10/100 ports, the faster 10/100/1000 ports are preferred to avoid bottlenecking wired transfer speeds over category 5e or 6 cables. If you have the choice between a physical or wireless connection, go the wired route. It’s more secure and frees up wireless bandwidth for other devices.

While four Ethernet ports on consumer-oriented routers is standard, certain manufacturers are changing things up. For example, the TP-Link/Google OnHub router only has one Ethernet port. This could be the start of a trend toward slimmer profiles at the expense of expansion. The OnHub router, pictured on the right, features a profile designed to be displayed, and not hidden in a closet, but this comes at the expense of external antennas, and the router has only a single Ethernet port. Asus’ RT-AC88U goes the other direction,incorporating eight Ethernet ports.

USB Ports

Some routers come with one or two USB ports. It is still common to find second-gen ports capable of speeds of up to 480 Mb/s (60 MB/s). Higher-end models implement USB 3.0, though. Though they cost more, the third-gen spec is capable 5 Gb/s (640 MB/s). The D-Link DIR-820L features a rear-mounted USB port. Also seen are the four LAN ports, as well as the Internet connection input (WAN).

One intended use of USB ports is to connect storage. All of them support flash drives; however, some routers output enough current for external enclosures with mechanical disks. If you don’t need a ton of capacity, you can use a feature like that to create an integrated NAS appliance. In some models, the storage is only accessible over a home network. In other cases, you can reach it remotely.

The other application of USB on a router is shared printing. Networked printers make it easy to consolidate to just one peripheral. Many new printers do come with Wi-Fi controllers built-in. But for those that don’t, it’s easy to run a USB cable from the device to your router and share it across the network. Just keep in mind that you might lose certain features if you hook your printer up to a router. For instance, you might not see warnings about low ink levels or paper jams.


The Future Of Wi-Fi

Wireless routers continue to evolve as Wi-Fi standards get ratified and implemented. One rapidly expanding area is the Connected Home space, with devices like thermostats, fire alarms, front door locks, lights and security cameras all piping in to the Internet. Some of these devices connect directly to the router, while others connect to a hub device—for example, the SmartThings Hub, which then connects to the router.

One upcoming standard is known as 802.11ad, also referred to as WiGig. Actual products based on the technology are just starting to appear. It operates on the 60GHz spectrum, which promises high bandwidth across short distances. Think of it akin to Bluetooth with a roughly 10 meter range, but performance on steroids. Look for docking stations without wires and 802.11ad as a protocol for linking our smartphones and desktops.

Used in the enterprise segment, 802.11k and 802.11r are being developed for the consumer market. The home networking industry plans to address the problem of using multiple access points to deal with Wi-Fi dead spots, and the trouble client devices have with hand-offs between multiple APs. 802.11k allows client devices to track APs for where they weaken, and 802.11r brings Fast Basic Service Set Transition (F-BSST) to facilitate authentication with APs. When 802.11k and 802.11r are combined, they will enable a technology known as Seamless Roaming. Seamless Roaming will facilitate client handoffs between routers and access points.

Beyond that will be 802.11ah, which is being developed to use on the 900MHz band. It is a low-bandwidth frequency, but is expected to double the range of 2.4GHz transmissions with the added benefit of low power. The envisioned application of it is connecting Internet of Things (IoT) devices.

Out on the distant horizon is 802.11ax, which is tentatively expected to roll out in 2019 (although remember that 802.11n and 802.11ac were years late). While the standard is still being worked on, its goal is 10 Gb/s throughput. The 802.11ax standard will focus on increasing speeds to individual devices by slicing up the frequency into smaller segments. This will be done via MIMO-OFDA, which stands for multiple-input, multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, which will incorporate new standards to pack additional data into the 5GHz data stream.

What To Look For In A Router

Choosing a router can get complicated. You have tons of choices across a range of price points. You’ll want to evaluate your needs and consider variables like the speed of your Internet connection, the devices you intend to connect and the features you anticipate using. My own personal recommendation would be to look for a minimum wireless rating of AC1200, USB connectivity and management through a smartphone app.

Netis’ WF2780 Wireless AC1200 offers an inexpensive way to get plenty of wireless performance at an extremely low price. While it lacks USB, you do get four external antennas (two for 2.4GHz and two for 5GHz), four gigabit Ethernet ports and the flexibility to use this device as a router, access point or repeater. Certain features are notably missing, but at under $60, this is an entry-level upgrade that most can afford.

Moving up to the mid-range, we find the TP-Link Archer C9. It features AC1900 wireless capable of 600 Mb/s on the 2.4GHz band and 1300 Mb/s on the 5GHz band. It has three antennas and a pair of USB ports, one of which is USB 3.0. There’s a 1GHz dual-core processor at the router’s heart and a TP-Link Tether smartphone app to ease setup and management. You’ll find the device for $130.

At the top end of the market is AC3200 wireless. There are several routers in this tier, including D-Link’s AC3200 Ultra Wi-Fi Router (DIR-890L/R). It features Tri-Band technology, which supports a 2.4GHz network at 600 Mb/s and two 5GHz networks at 1300 Mb/s. To accomplish this, it has a dual-core processor and no less than six antennas. There’s also an available app for network management, dual USB ports and GbE wired connectivity. The Smart Connect feature can dynamically balance the wireless clients among the available bands to optimize performance and prevent older devices from slowing down the rest of the network. Plus, this router has the aesthetics of a stealth destroyer and the red metallic paint job of a sports car! Such specs do not come cheap; expect to pay $300.


Wireless routers are assuming an ever-important role as the centerpiece of a residential home network. With the increasing need for multiple, simultaneous continuous data streams, robust throughput is no longer a nice feature, but rather a necessity. This becomes even more imperative as streaming 4K video moves from a high-end niche into the mainstream. By taking into consideration such factors as the data load as well as the number of simultaneous users, enthusiasts shopping for wireless routers will get the help they need to choose the router that best fits their needs and budget.

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LTE-U v. Wi-Fi Battle Set to Escalate

4 Feb

The battle between LTE-U and Wi-Fi will continue, even escalate – there is a lot at stake. LTE-U is designed to let cellular networks boost data speeds over short distances. Additionally, because no added rights that have to be purchased, LTE-U would allow carriers to extend their core networks at a fraction of the cost of their existing systems.

But they stomp on Wi-Fi signals. Because upper unibands can have a watt, or more, of transmit power in outdoor usage, they can overpower the shared Wi-Fi bands. Testing has shown that to be the case, and an LTE-U network can “override any Wi-Fi signal in the area, creating enough interference to block nearby corporate networks and public Wi-Fi hotspots – not good!

Proponents of LTE-U argue that it is a legitimate competitor to Wi-Fi technology, and should therefore be allowed to operate in the same spectrum. That is not the argument. The argument is that if it is going to share, then it has to be a good neighbor, and it is tuning out that such is not the case.

Wi-Fi currently uses an 802.11 listen-before-talk (LBT) contention-based protocol. LTE-U relies on an arbitrary duty cycle mechanism. LTE-U needs to adopt the same LBT protocol so everyone can just get along and share the medium. In the United Kingdom, they have acknowledged the problem and have regulated the 5 GHz spectrum. Is that what has to happen here?

Carriers are rushing LTE-U into the market because it is a cash cow. They want to get it out before the FCC has a chance to rule, because they know LTE-U, as it stands today, is a flawed platform and if they end up having to re-engineer the access protocols, it will cost them a lot of money. If the carriers succeeded, traditional Wi-Fi vendors will be forced to look for clean spectrum. The FCC, and industry leaders need to stop the 800 pound gorillas from bullying their way into the spectrum, and regulate the 5 GHz band.


Viavi Solutions sees an evolution of network monitoring to meet demand from 5G, VoLTE, NFV

18 Jan

As 2016 dawns on the wireless industry and operators continue coping with the challenge of improving customer experience and reducing costs, four aiding technologies will take center stage: network functions virtualization; voice over LTE and Wi-Fi calling; self-organizing networks; and the rise of “5G” networks. While we’ve been hearing about these next-generation technologies for some time, the challenge in the next year will be ensuring they are all working to maximize business opportunity profitability. And this will require granular, end-to-end real-time visibility across all devices and parts of the network.

Today we are poised to see a real revolution in networking over the next year where network operators now have the potential to intelligently and efficiently manage the ebb and flow of traffic and exploit under-utilized resources without compromising infrastructure or the customer experience. But it will take advancements in real-time visibility to do so. As end users come to expect flawlessness from their providers, assuring service will become much more detailed than simply checking to make sure everything’s plugged in.

Network functions virtualization
NFV can significantly lower network operating costs and increase flexibility and service velocity. Today, industry guidelines are for the most part in place to allow introducing the virtualized functions themselves, but management and orchestration standards for the self-configuration required to truly enable NFV are still in their infancy.
While 2016 will see a significant increase in NFV deployments, these will primarily revolve around semi-automatic configuration – in other words, not the full-blown automation required to realize 100% of NFV’s benefit. The NFV industry is therefore likely to put a great deal of effort into developing guidelines for the management and orchestration side of NFV deployments.

The benefits of NFV will only be realized if network performance management tools can access these new, virtual network interfaces. Operators will need to invest in solutions that ensure they can satisfy quality-of-service needs, including resiliency and latency in initial virtualization deployments. This next year should show a major ramp-up in the availability of test and assurance solutions able to provide truly actionable performance insights for virtualized network environments.

Voice over LTE and Wi-Fi
The fast growth in VoLTE rollouts will continue in 2016, as it becomes the de facto voice service over the legacy voice service. But VoLTE cannot exist as an island. It needs to evolve to reflect the way people communicate today, which comprises not just voice but also data, messaging social media, video and other multimedia-rich services. This implies that assurance systems must empower more granular and flexible control over performance parameters and thresholds to meet the needs of these different applications, alongside the visibility to react in real-time to unpredictable user behaviors.

The interaction between VoLTE and VoWi-Fi will mature, characterized by soft and seamless handoffs between the access methods. Managing VoLTE end to end – meaning understanding service quality from handset to the radio access network to backhaul to core – will be a key operator goal as they ensure that their services deliver high customer quality of experience. This means deploying sophisticated assurance platforms to know in real time where VoLTE services are performing poorly and where there is a stress in the network.

Self-organizing networks
Self-organizing networks are essentially the key to a connected future. By automating configuration, optimization and healing of the network, this frees up operational resources to focus on what’s truly important – better quality of experience and aligning revenue to network optimization. And, with the number of connected “things” positively exploding, managing and keeping up with the sheer number of devices requires an automated approach that also yields a new set of network-assurance challenges operators will have to deal with in 2016.

Today, many SON techniques simply baseline a network. In 2016, as the extreme non-uniformity in the network becomes more apparent, it will take a new, end-to-end approach to SON to keep these benefits coming.

The network will become more sporadic and this will manifest in several forms: time, subscriber, location and application. For example, take subscriber and location: a recent Viavi Solutions customer study found just 1% of users consume more than half of all data on a network. The study also found 50% of all data is consumed in less than 0.35% of the network area. To achieve significant performance gains via SON, operators can apply predictive approaches using analytics that reveal exactly which users are consuming how much bandwidth – and where they are located. This level of foresight is key to not only unlocking the full potential of SON in the RAN, but also to maximizing ROI for software-defined networking and NFV in the core.

2016 will be the year that at least the term “5G” proliferates, but we’re still a ways off from actual implementations. A future filled with driverless cars, drones that can deliver packages and location-based IoT products will require always-on networks with less than 1 millisecond latency – and that’s what 5G promises on paper. But 5G is imminent, and 2016 will reveal many advances toward building and delivering it to end users and their applications.

The race to 5G is bringing with it advancements in the network that inch us closer to always-on, always-fast and always improving networks. This work is pushing the industry to develop new tools and solutions that offer real-time troubleshooting and network healing, faster turn-up times and the ability to instantaneously respond to traffic spikes driven by external events. These new solutions may, at the same time, encourage new revenue streams by supporting the delivery of location- and contextually-relevant applications and services. Examples of these include mobile payment support and security as well as smart city applications for public services and emergency support.

The move to 5G is not an evolution, but a revolution – and major challenges exist across every stage of the technology deployment lifecycle and every part of the end-to-end network.

To move the needle on 5G development in 2016, operators need a partner with a wide breadth of expertise and solutions to collaborate on strategic planning and development in consideration of the significant dependencies and coordination needed for successful deployment.

Edge network configuration must change and move towards ultra-dense heterogeneous networks. Front- and backhaul transport require lower latency. These and other factors present significant challenges for commercial 5G evolution; however, the train has clearly left the station. And it will gain substantial momentum in 2016.

To 2016 and beyond

It’s exciting to watch the networking revolution – with myriad new capabilities and services surfacing thanks to evolving end-user habits and demands, the network simply cannot remain stagnant. And as new approaches – from hyped technologies like SDN/NFV or 5G – come about, operators need more sophisticated ways of ensuring it’s all working. In 2016, expect not only to see the network evolve, but also ways organizations capture and leverage analytics for assurance and optimization.

Photo copyright: wisiel / 123RF Stock Photo


The Introduction of Wi-Fi Technology

8 Jan

The term Wi-fi is very common today. It is possible that when you are at airport or restaurant or any public place you are under wi-fi signal.The Best way for connect Internet through wireless.lets look its feature and applications.

Wi-Fi Alliance Logo.svgThe Wi-fi technology is Best technology for connect and use internet its also use for connecting all your device and create networks like Printers, scanners, Mobile phones. It removes the need for wires for connecting it. Now a days almost all devices are Wi-Fi compatible. Now The Goverments of many countries setup wifi networks for Free basic internet services for their people. It can setup into the home for small network or create large scale city infrastructure by goverments, WiFi has a lot of advantages. Wireless networks are easy to set up
and inexpensive.
A wireless network uses radio waves, just like cell phones, televisions and radios do. In fact, communication across a wireless network is a lot like two-way radio communication. Here’s what happens:

  1. A computer’s wireless adapter translates data into a radio signal and transmits it using an antenna.
  2. A wireless router receives the signal and decodes it. The router sends the information to the Internet using a physical, wired Ethernet connection.

The process also works in reverse, with the router receiving information from the Internet, translating it into a radio signal and sending it to the computer’s wireless adapter.
The Wi-Fi Alliance defines Wi-Fi as any “wireless local area network” (WLAN) product based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers’ (IEEE) 802.11 standards.However, the term “Wi-Fi” is used in general English as a synonym for “WLAN” since most modern WLANs are based on these standards. “Wi-Fi” is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance. The “Wi-Fi Certified” trademark can only be used by Wi-Fi products that successfully complete Wi-Fi Alliance interoperabilit certification testing.

  • 802.11a transmits at 5 GHz and can move up to 54 megabits of data per second. It also uses orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), a more efficient coding technique that splits that radio signal into several sub-signals before they reach a receiver. This greatly reduces interference.
  • 802.11b is the slowest and least expensive standard. For a while, its cost made it popular, but now it’s becoming less common as faster standards become less expensive. 802.11b transmits in the 2.4 GHz frequency band of the radio spectrum. It can handle up to 11 megabits of data per second, and it uses complementary code keying (CCK) modulation to improve speeds.
  • 802.11g transmits at 2.4 GHz like 802.11b, but it’s a lot faster — it can handle up to 54 megabits of data per second. 802.11g is faster because it uses the same OFDM coding as 802.11a.
  • 802.11n is the most widely available of the standards and is backward compatible with a, b and g. It significantly improved speed and range over its predecessors. For instance, although 802.11g theoretically moves 54 megabits of data per second, it only achieves real-world speeds of about 24 megabits of data per second because of network congestion. 802.11n, however, reportedly can achieve speeds as high as 140 megabits per second. 802.11n can transmit up to four streams of data, each at a maximum of 150 megabits per second, but most routers only allow for two or three streams.
  • 802.11ac is the newest standard as of early 2013. It has yet to be widely adopted, and is still in draft form at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), but devices that support it are already on the market. 802.11ac is backward compatible with 802.11n (and therefore the others, too), with n on the 2.4 GHz band and ac on the 5 GHz band. It is less prone to interference and far faster than its predecessors, pushing a maximum of 450 megabits per second on a single stream, although real-world speeds may be lower. Like 802.11n, it allows for transmission on multiple spatial streams — up to eight, optionally. It is sometimes called 5G WiFi because of its frequency band, sometimes Gigabit WiFi because of its potential to exceed a gigabit per second on multiple streams and sometimes Very High Throughput (VHT) for the same reason.
  • Other 802.11 standards focus on specific applications of wireless networks, like wide area networks (WANs) inside vehicles or technology that lets you move from one wireless network to another seamlessly.
  • WiFi radios can transmit on any of three frequency bands. Or, they can “frequency hop” rapidly between the different bands. Frequency hopping helps reduce interference and lets multiple devices use the same wireless connection simultaneously.

Wi-fi hotspot is used for the send wifi signal in area. and all device must be wifi compatible for catching wifi signal.
Sources : –



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