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In-Car Entertainment in Indonesia

22 Nov

Industry Reports

Through 2011, in-car entertainment remained the smallest category within consumer electronics in Indonesia. The category is niche, gearing towards middle- and upper-income classes. Growth of in-car entertainment is strong even though it is still in small size. Jakarta, the capital city, is particularly known for its bad traffic conditions, and other first-tier cities in the country have shown the same problem. Therefore, there is a rising demand for high-quality in-car entertainment to keep…

In-Car Entertainment in Indonesia report offers a comprehensive guide to the size and shape of the in-home, portable and in-car consumer electronics products markets at a national level. It provides the latest retail sales data, allowing you to identify the sectors driving growth. It identifies the leading companies, the leading brands and offers strategic analysis of key factors influencing the market- be they new product developments, distribution or pricing issues. Forecasts illustrate how the market is set…

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Cloud Telephony Firm Infratel Gets $3 Million Investment from Runa, Prostor

8 Aug

An illustration of Infratel’s Infra Cloud Receptionist technology, which the company will develop further with funds from Runa Capital and Prostor Capital

Cloud telephony provider Infratel announced on Tuesday that it has secured $3 million in Series A funding from investment firms Prostor Capital and Runa Capital, money it intends to use on building out its platform for small businesses.

Runa Capital is an investment firm with close ties to the hosting industry. Started just over a year ago by a group that includes former Parallels CEO (and current chair and chief architect) Serguei Beloussov and 1&1 Internet founders Andreas Gauger and Achim Weiss, as well as several others. Runa has focused on investing in software companies that address some of the needs of the hosting market, or could benefit from using hosting providers as a channel.

That list includes NGINX, Ecwid and Jelastic, and included Infratel prior to today’s announcement, though it may be that Tuesday’s announcement references the original investment in Infratel made previously by Runa.

“The unique technology platform and business model make Infratel a significant acquisition for our portfolio,” says Beloussov, quoted in the press release announcing the investment. “Our long-term relationship, hosting service providers network, and technical expertise can help Infratel in the cloud telephony market to provide unique solutions to millions of small businesses around the world.”

Prostor Capital, says Infratel, is an investment firm with a “deep knowledge of the telephony and service provider industry.”

Infratel’s telephony products, while designed for small businesses, are designed to be distributed through service providers, and through hosting providers in particular. In the press release announcing the investment, Infratel says it has built a “cloud based solution that integrates directly into the provider’s infrastructure,” providing a better ROI for service providers. For Infratel, the advantage of distributing through service providers is a faster, broader market penetration than possible by targeting the fragmented SOHO market directly.

The company’s main offering is a “cloud receptionist” platform that includes a set of telephony tools that enable a small business with limited staff and resources to handle incoming telephone calls in a more “professional” way, and to better manage their responses. In July, the company spun out the “click-to-call” portion of its platform as a separate, entry-level option, based on the popularity of the individual function.

Part of the company’s efforts to approach the hosting market has been the integration of the Infratel tools with the Parallels platform, which Jon McCarrick discussed earlier this year at the Parallels Summit.

“There are more than 11 million small businesses in North America and Europe that have a website but don’t have a basic telephony presence, hindering their ability to interact with customers”, says Bryan Goode, CEO of Infratel, quoted in the press release. “Our goal in closing this investment round with Prostor and Runa is to bring intuitive, easy to use communications solutions to help these small businesses grow and prosper.”

Source: – Liam Eagle on August 7, 2012

LTE Physical, Logical and Transport Channels

19 Jul

In order that data can be transported across the LTE radio interface, various “channels” are used. These are used to segregate the different types of data and allow them to be transported across the radio access network in an orderly fashion.

Effectively the different channels provide interfaces to the higher layers within the LTE protocol structure and enable an orderly and defined segregation of the data.

3G LTE channel types

There are three categories into which the various data channels may be grouped.

  • Physical channels:   These are transmission channels that carry user data and control messages.
  • Transport channels:   The physical layer transport channels offer information transfer to Medium Access Control (MAC) and higher layers.
  • Logical channels:   Provide services for the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer within the LTE protocol structure.

3G LTE physical channels

The LTE physical channels vary between the uplink and the downlink as each has different requirements and operates in a different manner.

  • Downlink:
    • Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH):   This physical channel carries system information for UEs requiring to access the network. It only carries what is termed Master Information Block, MIB, messages. The modulation scheme is always QPSK and the information bits are coded and rate matched – the bits are then scrambled using a scrambling sequence specific to the cell to prevent confusion with data from other cells.

      The MIB message on the PBCH is mapped onto the central 72 subcarriers or six central resource blocks regardless of the overall system bandwidth. A PBCH message is repeated every 40 ms, i.e. one TTI of PBCH includes four radio frames.

      The PBCH transmissions has 14 information bits, 10 spare bits, and 16 CRC bits.

    • Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH) :   As the name implies the PCFICH informs the UE about the format of the signal being received. It indicates the number of OFDM symbols used for the PDCCHs, whether 1, 2, or 3. The information within the PCFICH is essential because the UE does not have prior information about the size of the control region.

      A PCFICH is transmitted on the first symbol of every sub-frame and carries a Control Format Indicator, CFI, field. The CFI contains a 32 bit code word that represents 1, 2, or 3. CFI 4 is reserved for possible future use.

      The PCFICH uses 32,2 block coding which results in a 1/16 coding rate, and it always uses QPSK modulation to ensure robust reception.

    • Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH) :  The main purpose of this physical channel is to carry mainly scheduling information of different types:
      • Downlink resource scheduling
      • Uplink power control instructions
      • Uplink resource grant
      • Indication for paging or system information

The PDCCH contains a message known as the Downlink Control Information, DCI which carries the control information for a particular UE or group of UEs. The DCI format has several different types which are defined with different sizes. The different format types include: Type 0, 1, 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, 2, 2A, 2B, 2C, 3, 3A, and 4.

    • Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH) :   As the name implies, this channel is used to report the Hybrid ARQ status. It carries the HARQ ACK/NACK signal indicating whether a transport block has been correctly received. The HARQ indicator is 1 bit long – “0” indicates ACK, and “1” indicates NACK.

      The PHICH is transmitted within the control region of the subframe and is typically only transmitted within the first symbol. If the radio link is poor, then the PHICH is extended to a number symbols for robustness.

  • Uplink:
    • Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH) :   The Physical Uplink Control Channel, PUCCH provides the various control signalling requirements. There are a number of different PUCCH formats defined to enable the channel to carry the required information in the most efficient format for the particular scenario encountered. It includes the ability to carry SRs, Scheduling Requests.

      The basic formats are summarised below:

PUCCH Format

Uplink Control Information

Modulation Scheme

Bits per Sub-frame


Format 1 SR



Format 1a 1 bit HARQ ACK/NACK with or without SR



Format 1b 2 bit HARQ ACK/NACK with or without SR



Format 2 CQI/PMI or RI



Format 2a CQI/PMI or RI and 1 bit HARQ ACK/NACK



Format 2b CQI/PMI or RI and 2 bit HARQ ACK/NACK



Format 3       Provides support for carrier aggregation.
    • Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH) :   This physical channel found on the LTE uplink is the Uplink counterpart of PDSCH
    • Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) :   This uplink physical channel is used for random access functions. This is the only non-synchronised transmission that the UE can make within LTE. The downlink and uplink propagation delays are unknown when PRACH is used and therefore it cannot be synchronised.

      The PRACH instance is made up from two sequences: a cyclic prefix and a guard period. The preamble sequence may be repeated to enable the eNodeB to decode the preamble when link conditions are poor.

LTE transport channels

The LTE transport channels vary between the uplink and the downlink as each has different requirements and operates in a different manner. Physical layer transport channels offer information transfer to medium access control (MAC) and higher layers.

  • Downlink:
    • Broadcast Channel (BCH) :   The LTE transport channel maps to Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
    • Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH) :   This transport channel is the main channel for downlink data transfer. It is used by many logical channels.
    • Paging Channel (PCH) :   To convey the PCCH
    • Multicast Channel (MCH) :   This transport channel is used to transmit MCCH information to set up multicast transmissions.
  • Uplink:
    • Uplink Shared Channel (UL-SCH) :   This transport channel is the main channel for uplink data transfer. It is used by many logical channels.
    • Random Access Channel (RACH) :   This is used for random access requirements.


LTE logical channels

The logical channels cover the data carried over the radio interface. The Service Access Point, SAP between MAC sublayer and the RLC sublayer provides the logical channel.

  • Control channels:these LTE control channels carry the control plane information:
    • Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) :   This control channel provides system information to all mobile terminals connected to the eNodeB.
    • Paging Control Channel (PCCH) :   This control channel is used for paging information when searching a unit on a network.
    • Common Control Channel (CCCH) :   This channel is used for random access information, e.g. for actions including setting up a connection.
    • Multicast Control Channel (MCCH) :   This control channel is used for Information needed for multicast reception.
    • Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) :   This control channel is used for carrying user-specific control information, e.g. for controlling actions including power control, handover, etc..


  • Traffic channels:These LTE traffic channels carry the user-plane data:
    • Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) :   This traffic channel is used for the transmission of user data.
    • Multicast Traffic Channel (MTCH) :   This channel is used for the transmission of multicast data.

It will be seen that many of the LTE channels bear similarities to those sued in previous generations of mobile telecommunications.


Improving Public Safety via LTE

16 Jul

Imagine what it might be like if emergency workers who respond to horrific catastrophes like hurricanes, tornadoes and earthquakes all were carrying small video cameras. Further image that they could share in real-time the video and other critical information they capture on the scene with colleagues at the site and with the entire emergency response ecosystem. 
The vision of video and rich data being efficiently and effectively share between all critical aspects of public safety emergency response ecosystems — from those onsite to all of their support capabilities and the command and control centers of all agencies for whom the speed of responsivenss is essential is being relized. The advent of 4G LTE mobile broadband is at the core of Alcatel-Lucent’s push to make the vision of public safety communication reality.

As noted by Alcatel-Lucent, most public safety agencies today use digital Professional or Land Mobile Radio (PMR/LMR) networks that are based on the TETRA standard in Europe and most other parts of the world which typically use the 400 MHz band. Project25 is used in the U.S. for essential communication with dedicated radio spectrum in the 700 MHz frequency band. 

The challenge for traditional systems is that while they provide emergency teams the ability to talk securely in a one-to-one or group situations with ‘push-to-talk’ to prioritize speakers, they  cannot accommodate the video and rich data services that now are available to any consumer on a 4G LTE mobile broadband network. This is the situation that Alcatel-Lucent (NewsAlert) is looking to rectify by enabling public safety agencies to have their own dedicated spectrum to avail themselves not just of connectivity and interoperability for basic voice interactions during times of crises, but also to the full panoply of capabilities broadband provides.   

In May, Alcatel-Lucent and Cassidian, an EADS (NewsAlert) company, unveiled the Evercor solution, which brings 4G LTE (NewsAlert) mobile broadband to professional mobile radio users in the 400 MHz frequency band.

“It integrates LTE mobile data with mission critical voice capabilities enabling real-time video, collaboration and data services,” said Philippe Keryer, Executive Vice President of Alcatel-Lucent Networks Group and Jean-Marc Nasr, Senior Vice President of Head of Cassidian Secure Communications Solutions, in an announcement about the solution.

Delivering backhaul networking capabilities that can support the power, bandwidth and speeds needed for effective emergency video and data services has also been at the core of Alcatel-Lucent’s public safety work. The company leverages its Wireless Packet Core portfolio, including its all-Internet Protocol/Multiprotocol Label Switching (IP/MPLS) communications protocol and its family of IP/MPLS Service Routers such as its  7705 Service Aggregation Router.

Last August, the company demonstrated its ‘Striker 1’ mobile command vehicle, which the company said, “provides LTE mobile broadband support in the public safety band 14 spectrum for mobile devices such as tablets, radios and video cameras.”

Alcatel-Lucent’s work with public safety agencies around the world on incorporating 4G LTE mobile broadband into their response effort is reflected in two recent projects. It assisted the City of Charlotte on giving fingerprint and face recognition to first responders over the 700 MHz frequency. And, it is working with the São Paolo, Brazil military police to leverage high-speed video and data at two of its police operational centers.

We hear a lot about the revolution 4G LTE is bringing to personal and commercial markets. In various major catastrophes around the world in the past few years, significant gaps in connectivity and capabilities have exposed the critical need for dedicated wireless broadband to enable first responders and aid providers to be able to act quickly and coordinate activities decisively in times where every second matters. It is encouraging how LTE is being used in dedicated frequencies and not just traditional but innovative ways to greatly improve public safety ecosystem response capabilities.    
July 15, 2012 By Mae Kowalke, TMCnet Contributor

Edited by Peter Bernstein


Basic Function of Uplink & Downlink Transport Channel in LTE

12 Jul

Basic Function of Uplink & Downlink Transport Channel in LTE

Downlink Transport Channel

Broadcast Channel (BCH)

  • A fixed TF
  • Used for transmission of parts of BCCH, so called MIB

Paging Channel (PCH)

  • Used for transmission of paging information from PCCH
  • Supports discontinuous reception (DRX)

Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH)

  • Main transport channel used for transmission of downlink data in LTE
  • Used also for transmission of parts of BCCH, so called SIB
  • Supports discontinuous reception (DRX)

Multicast Channel (MCH)

  • Used to support MBMS


Uplink Transport Channel

Uplink Shared Channel (UL-SCH)

  • Uplink counterpart to the DL-SCH

Random Access Channel(s) (RACH)

  • Transport channel which doesn’t carry transport blocks
  • Collision risk


Mr.Teletopix / July 4, 2012


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