4G LTE/LTE-Advanced for Mobile Broadband

11 Feb

Mobile communications has become an everyday commodity. In the last decades, it has evolved rombeing an expensive technology or a ew selected individuals to today’s ubiquitous systems usedby a majority o the world’s population. From the rst experiments with radio communication byGuglielmo Marconi in the 1890s, the road to truly mobile radio communication has been quite long.To understand the complex mobile-communication systems o today, it is important to understandwhere they came rom and how cellular systems have evolved. The task o developing mobile tech-nologies has also changed, rom being a national or regional concern, to becoming an increasinglycomplex task undertaken by global standards-developing organizations such as the

Third GenerationPartnership Project
(3GPP) and involving thousands o people.Mobile communication technologies are oten divided into generations, with 1G being the ana-log mobile radio systems o the 1980s, 2G the rst digital mobile systems, and 3G the rst mobilesystems handling broadband data. The
Long-Term Evolution
(LTE) is oten called “4G”, but manyalso claim that LTE release 10, also reerred to as
LTE-Advanced
, is the true 4G evolution step, withthe rst release o LTE (release 8) then being labeled as “3.9G”. This continuing race o increasingsequence numbers o mobile system generations is in act just a matter o labels. What is important isthe actual system capabilities and how they have evolved, which is the topic o this chapter.In this context, it must rst be pointed out that LTE and LTE-Advanced is the same technology,with the “Advanced” label primarily being added to highlight the relation between LTE release 10(LTE-Advanced) and ITU/IMT-Advanced, as discussed later. This does not make LTE-Advanceda dierent system than LTE and it is not in any way the nal evolution step to be taken or LTE.Another important aspect is that the work on developing LTE and LTE-Advanced is perormed as acontinuing task within 3GPP, the same orum that developed the rst 3G system (WCDMA/HSPA).This chapter describes the background or the development o the LTE system, in terms o events,activities, organizations and other actors that have played an important role. First, the technolo-gies and mobile systems leading up to the starting point or 3G mobile systems will be discussed.Next, international activities in the ITU that were part o shaping 3G and the 3G evolution and themarket and technology drivers behind LTE will be discussed. The nal part o the chapter describesthe standardization process that provided the detailed specication work leading to the LTE systemsdeployed and in operation today.
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