Mobile communications has become an everyday commodity. In the last decades, it has evolved rombeing an expensive technology or a ew selected individuals to today’s ubiquitous systems usedby a majority o the world’s population. From the rst experiments with radio communication byGuglielmo Marconi in the 1890s, the road to truly mobile radio communication has been quite long.To understand the complex mobile-communication systems o today, it is important to understandwhere they came rom and how cellular systems have evolved. The task o developing mobile tech-nologies has also changed, rom being a national or regional concern, to becoming an increasinglycomplex task undertaken by global standards-developing organizations such as the
Third GenerationPartnership Project
(3GPP) and involving thousands o people.Mobile communication technologies are oten divided into generations, with 1G being the ana-log mobile radio systems o the 1980s, 2G the rst digital mobile systems, and 3G the rst mobilesystems handling broadband data. The
(LTE) is oten called “4G”, but manyalso claim that LTE release 10, also reerred to as
, is the true 4G evolution step, withthe rst release o LTE (release 8) then being labeled as “3.9G”. This continuing race o increasingsequence numbers o mobile system generations is in act just a matter o labels. What is important isthe actual system capabilities and how they have evolved, which is the topic o this chapter.In this context, it must rst be pointed out that LTE and LTE-Advanced is the same technology,with the “Advanced” label primarily being added to highlight the relation between LTE release 10(LTE-Advanced) and ITU/IMT-Advanced, as discussed later. This does not make LTE-Advanceda dierent system than LTE and it is not in any way the nal evolution step to be taken or LTE.Another important aspect is that the work on developing LTE and LTE-Advanced is perormed as acontinuing task within 3GPP, the same orum that developed the rst 3G system (WCDMA/HSPA).This chapter describes the background or the development o the LTE system, in terms o events,activities, organizations and other actors that have played an important role. First, the technolo-gies and mobile systems leading up to the starting point or 3G mobile systems will be discussed.Next, international activities in the ITU that were part o shaping 3G and the 3G evolution and themarket and technology drivers behind LTE will be discussed. The nal part o the chapter describesthe standardization process that provided the detailed specication work leading to the LTE systemsdeployed and in operation today.
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